Nikon SB-28 AF-TTL Speedlight
After the official debut of the Nikon F5, Nikon introduced a new flash in 1997. The most significant feature when compared to any of the super-flash models such as SB-24, SB-25 and SB-26 is its overall dimension - weighing only at 320g (approx. 11oz), the weights reduction is nearly 30% lighter than all predecessors. The has a flat panel design at its rear section where the LCD and control buttons locate is cleaner and less cluster than previous Nikon flash model(s).
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Note: * Because the European version of the SB-28 comes with a different shaped connector, Nikon DC Units SD-7, SD-8 and the Power Bracket Unit SK-6 are not compatible.
Other than the main ON/OFF switch, all other switches are eliminated. All the hard rubberized recessed buttons are said to be designed as moisture proof. Actually, the removal of the sliding switches is a good idea, as the flash is a highly sophisticated electronic flash with mind boggling combinations of functions, the more switches can accidentally cause unintentional switches the flash to a different functions, although in many ways, the flash exposure/metering is somehow controlled via the camera rather than the flash itself. Frankly, the front and rear section of the flash projects a very different feel and look, with a combination of a modern, high tech look at the front and a slightly conservative feel at the back. I think after years of research and accumulating all users' feedback, probably the emphasis now in an all new designing concept for a modern Nikon flash is a mix between practicality and elegance. The main strength of this Nikon flash is user's friendliness - and it is very inviting to for photographers to explore its potential, individual control button now is well illustrated with its purpose and it allows users easier to "guess" in relation to its respective functions, even without a manual in hand to refer.
Nikon SB-28 Flash / speedlight compatibility chart with various Nikon cameras.
Source: Nikon Europe
Other than size and form, this rigid and very well made Nikon SB-28 has a few changes in its features although largely, its core functions remains intact when used with any modern high-techno Nikon AF bodies. In terms of performance, it is the same with the previous SB-26, where it offers a raw power output measures with its Guide Number of 36 (ISO 100, m): 36 (with zoom head set at 35mm and higher at other zoom settings i.e. 164 ft (50m) ISO 100 at 85mm setting); uses standard AA Alkaline or Lithium cells (KR-6) and accepts variable external power sources for extended shooting in a long session. The built-in wide adapter enables its flash coverage spreads down to a 18mm ultrawideangle lense.
This top of the line Nikon flash has removed the much hyped wireless remote slave flash feature has been omitted from the feature list (the smaller SB-27 still has that feature retained) and the external control rear curtain sync switch is also eliminated (this might posed some problem with Nikon F4 which depends on the flash setting to set this mode). The FP high speed is usable with selective capable Nikon SLR bodies and with its high power capacity, repeating flash is also very usable at moderate distance. Another nice feature is - once turn the flash on, the flash will stay at ready to burst status and if after 80 sec. or so of inactivity, the energy saver will revert the flash to a standby mode.
Credit: Images courtesy of Mr. Cuong Pham® <email@example.com>. Irwan also has an Ebay Store on his own. Image copyright © 2003. All rights reserved.
The film speed is set automatically once a capable Nikon AF body is connected. Its luminous LCD panel has a complete set information display where it needed, basic info such as zoom setting, apertures, film speed, flash modes, version of TTL used, distance range of flash output etc. When operating in manual exposure, other than it offers full, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/ 16, 1/32 and 1/64 output, the flash also calculates and recommends exactly what aperture to use for distance coverage and also indicate the correct exposure in terms of distance, power output, and aperture setting.
<<< --- If you think the built-in reflector card is too restrictive for your type of flash photography, you may combine third party products such as this combination used by a contributor: Nikon Flash Unit SB-28 with Lumiquest Promax Softbox and the TTL Extension Sync Cord SC-17. Naturally, one or more of the SB-28s and/or other Nikon TTL flash can also be used at the same time for multi-flash setup. See here for a possible combination.
Credit: Images courtesy of Mr.XXX. (Name and email of the generous contributor being withheld as personal request) Image copyright © 2003. All rights reserved.
Overall, this high performance top-of-the-line Nikon Speedlight can be very appealing IF - you are looking for a new Nikon flash to supplement your purchase of a Nikon F5, F100 and/or F80 etc. where you love to unleash full potential of the respective Nikon bodies provide or in another scenario if you have already owned an older version of Nikon AF Speedlight such as SB-20, SB-23 etc. and wish to upgrade and/or add another high performance AF flash for your flash photography. However, other than its size and weight (if you seriously think it makes a difference), the SB-28 may not present any significant advantage to call for replacement and/or upgrade if you have already possessed a previous Nikon AF flash model such as SB-25 and/or SB-26. Owner of SB-24 may also consider this only if you have upgraded your camera system to a newer series of Nikon SLRs such as F5 or a F100. Well, basically, all I intended to say is, because this Nikon flash is not that cheap all together (retailing from USD280.00 -US320-00 a piece) and seriously need sme justification for such investment.
The SB-28 recently has another upgrade with a twin sister in a Nikon SB-28DX AF-TTL speedlight - specifically tailored for the Nikon DIGITAL SLR series (DX version offers D_TTL Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-Flash for Nikon D1/D1H/D1x or D100 or later bodies) but it will operate and function the same like a normal SB-28 with any capable Nikon AF SLRs. So, if think you are planning for another path in digital photography in the near future and if financially it is viable to do so, that could well be another more logical alternative.
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Technical Highlights: The Nikon flash provides full automation, full manual override or a combination of both. It provides four (4) flash modes corresponding to the type of lens used.
3D Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-Flash with Monitor Pre-flashes (with Nikon F5, F100, F80 series, F90(x), F70 or other later capable Nikon AF SLR bodies and D-type AF Nikkor)
Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-Flash with Monitor Pre-flashes (with F5, F100, F80 series, F90(x), F70 or other later capable Nikon AF SLR bodies and CPU lense* except D-type AF Nikkor and iX-Nikkor)
Matrix Balanced Fill-Flash (with F4-series, F-601 or PRONEA 600i and/or other capable Nikon AF SLR bodies F50 and CPU lens**)
Red-Eye Reduction (with F 90(x), F70 or PRONEA 600i and /or other capable Nikon AF SLR bodies)
Slow Sync: (with F5, F90(x), F70, F-601 or PRONEA 600i and /or other capable Nikon AF SLR bodies)
AF-Assist Illuminator (with any Nikon AF SLRs)
Auto Zoom Heads in accordance to focal length with appropriate AF Nikkor lenses
TTL/Manual flash output level compensation
Automatic power zoom coverage from 24mm to 50mm (with F5, F100, F80 series, F4-series, F90(x), F70 or PRONEA 600i and CPU lense)
Built-in bounce card
Built-in wide flash adapter to cover 18mm
Tilting/rotating flash head
FP High Speed Sync: Not all Nikon AF SLRs have this feature, with the F5, F100 or F90(x), the SB-28's flash output continues from the start of the shutter curtain opening until it is fully closed, thus allowing flash synchronization with fast shutter speeds from 1/250 to 1/4000 sec. You can capture fill-flash pictures even with film that has a high ISO rating, and still maintain wide aperture settings for expanded control of depth of field.
LCD panel with illumination (luminous characters) * CPU lenses refer to those AF Nikkor, AF-S Nikkor, AF-i Nikkor, Ai-P Nikkor or iX-Nikkor lenses which feature a built-in microcomputer and CPU contacts. ** With F4 series, Ai-S or Ai Nikkor lenses are also usable.
<<< --- Credit: Images courtesy of Mr. Bill Mayes® <email@example.com>. Bill has an Ebay Store on his own. Image copyright © 2003. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.
Specifications for Nikon SB-28 AF-TTL Speedlight
Electronic construction: Automatic Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and series circuitry
Nikon SB-28 Instruction Manual (HTML format)
Using SB-28 in Dim light. lluminator: Press the.button to turn the illuminator on. Press the button again to turn it off. The illuminator turns off automatically after approx. 16 sec. when the SB-28 is not in use.
Fill-Flash with TTL Multi-Sensor
Manual Flash <<<--- Flash Mode Indicators appear on REAR LCD of SB-28 Speedlight Matrix Balanced Fill-Flash,
Non-TTL Auto Flash Standard TTL Flash Repeating Flash
By pressing a single button, you can activate frequently used functions. When two buttons are pressed simultaneously, you can activate functions which are not necessary to set each time. For easy reference, refer to the chart on the back of the built-in bounce card.
To adjust the zoom-head position
To set the flash mode
To select and set various functions and values
To increase values
To decrease values
To test fire the flash
To illuminate the LCD panel
To turn power on and off
To set or cancel automatic zoom-head adjustment (Buttons must be pressed for 2 sec.)
To readjust the zoom-head position, if built-in wide flash adapter is broken off accidentally
To turn the AF assist illuminator LED on or off
To cancel or set the standby function (Buttons must be pushed after the flash is turned off.)
To select the distance scale (meters or feet) (Buttons must be pushed after the flash is turned off.)
Red-eye reduction The red-eye reduction LED lights up for approx. 1 sec. before the flash fires. This function is set on the camera. Applicable to cameras in Group I (except F5) and Pronea 600i/6i.
AF assist illumination: Automatically fires LED beam toward subject when performing autofocus in dim light or in the dark with Nikon AF cameras. Can be canceled.
Ready-light: Lights up when SB-28 is recycled and ready to fire. • Blinks for 3 seconds when flash fires at its maximum output, indicating light may have been insufficient (in TTL Auto Flash and·A mode only).
Flash exposure control: TTL automatic control with Nikon F5, F100, F80 series, Nikon F4-series, F90x, F70, F-601, F50 or PRONEA 600i; Non-TTL automatic control with any Nikon SLR (with Flash Unit Coupler AS-4 (non-TTL), TTL-AS-7 or AS-17 required with Nikon F3 series).
Manual control: full, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/ 16, 1/32 and 1/64 output
Guide number (ISO 100, m): 36 (with zoom head set at 35mm)
Flash coverage: (Variable in 6 steps, plus 2-steps with built-in wide flash adapter)85mm, 70mm, 50mm, 35mm, 28mm, 24mm; 20mm, 18mm ( built-in wide flash adapter: Allows the SB-28 to be used with 18mm or 20mm lenses.)
Bounce capability Flash head tilts down to –7° or up to 90° with click-stops at –7°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°; flash head rotates horizontally 180° to the left with click-stops at 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, 150°, 180° and 90° to the right with click stops at 30°, 60°, 90°
Film speed range in TTL auto flash mode: ISO 25 to 1000 with Nikon F5, F100, F80 Series, F4-series, F90(x), F70, F-601, F50 or or PRONEA 600i
Recycling time: Approx. 6.5 sec. (Manual at FULL)
Safety lock system: With cameras equipped with a safety lock system, the mount pin is automatically inserted into the locking hole in the camera’s accessory shoe to secure the SB-28.
LCD panel illuminator: Turns on and off every time the illuminator .button is pressed. Illumination lasts approx. 16 seconds.
Number of flashes: Approx. 150 (Manual at FULL)
Flash Duration: 1/6700 sec. to 1/1000 sec.
1/840 sec. @ 1/1 (full) output
1/1100 sec. @ 1/2 outut
1/2300 sec. @ 1/4 outut
1/4880 sec. @ 1/8 output
1/9100 sec. @ 1/16 output
1/19000 sec. @ 1/32 output
1/28800 sec. @ 1/64 output
Sync and Multi flash terminals: provided
AF-Assist Muminator: Automatically fires LED beam toward subject when performing autofocus with Nikon F5, F100, F80 series, F4 series, F90(x), F70, F-601, F50 or PRONEA 600i in low-light conditions: cancelable at will
<<< --- Credit: Images courtesy of Midwest Photo Exchange (MPX) ® <firstname.lastname@example.org>. Image copyright © 2003. All rights reserved.
Camera /Flash operation
F5, F100, F90X / N90s*1, F90-Series/ N901 F80-Series/N80 -Series* 1,2,3, F70-Series/ N70*1,2
F4-Series, F65-Series/ N65-Series* 1,3, F-801s/ N8308s*1, F-801/ N8308*1 Pronea 600i/ 6 *1,3
F-501/ N2020*4 F-401s/ N4004s*1 F-401/ N4004*1 F-301/ N2000*4
FM3A, FA, FE2, FG, NikonosV* 5
F3-Series*6, New FM2, FM10, FE10 (applicable to Nikon F and Nikon F2 series -via adaptors)
3D Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-Flash*7 Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-Flash *7 Matrix Balanced Fill-Flash Center-Weighted / Fill-Flash / Spot Fill-Flash Programmed TTL AutoFlash Standard TTL Flash
Non-TTL Auto Flash
Manual Flash FP High-Speed Flash Sync Repeating Flash
Power source: Four 1.5V LR6 (AA-type alkaline), 1.2V KR-AA (AA-type NiCd) or 1.5V FR6 (AA-type lithium) batteries; external DC Unit SD-7 (uses six C-type alkaline-manganese batteries)*; High performance Battery Pack SD-8A* (uses six AA-type alkaline-manganese batteries) Power Bracket SK-6/6A (uses four AA-type alkalinemanganese batteries)Note: for some reasons, the * SD-7 is not available in EU countries. ** SD-7/8 cannot be used with the SB-28 in EU countries. Note: For fast recycling times: NiCd batteries are recommended followed by (2) Ni-MH, (3) alkaline-manganese, and (4) lithium batteries. • For increasing the number of flashes per battery set: at normal temperatures, lithium batteries are recommended followed by (2) alkalinemanganese, (3) Ni-MH, and (4) NiCd batteries; at low temperatures, lithium batteries are recommended followed by (2) Ni-MH, (3) alkalinemanganese, and (4) NiCd batteries. • Ni-MH batteries feature approx. the same battery power as 1000mAh NiCd batteries. • 1000mAh NiCd batteries have approx. 1.4 times the power capacity of 700mAh NiCd batteries.
Accessories supplied: Soft Case SS-28, External power source terminal cap
Dimension (without mounting foot): 69 x 128 x 90mm (without mounting foot)
Weight (without batteries): Approx. 320g
Other features: External power source terminal, Red-Eye Reduction: The SB-27 Red-Eye Reduction lamp, used with the F5, F100, F90(x), F80 series or PRONEA 600i, F70 etc., lights up in advance to make the pupils of the eyes become smaller, thus reducing the appearance of Red-Eye; Open flash/test button; Auto zoom heads with capable Nikon bodies.
LCD panel illumination: Characters are luminous; Built-in bounce card; Built-in wide flash adapter; Tilting/rotating flash head; FP High Speed Sync: With the F5, F100 or F90(x) or later capable Nikon bodies
Accessory provided: Soft Case SS-28 * Specifications apply when fresh LR6 (AA-type alkaline) batteries are used at normal temperature (20 C); AF-Assist Illuminator, zoom flash or LCD illuminator is not used.
Optional Nikon flash accessories There are various ways of connecting Nikon Speedlights to a Nikon SLR such as F5, F100 or a F90(x) other than direct mounting. For instance, you can use the Nikon SC- 17 TTL Remote Cord for off-camera flash photography (approx. 1.5m). Up to two more units can be connected to the SC-17's terminals through the TTL Multi-Flash Sync Cord SC-18 or SC-19 for TTL multi-flash photography.
The flash ready-light in the camera's viewfinder will blink: F90X/N90s viewfinder display is shown
Cameras in Groups I (except F70-Series/N70 ), II, III, V and VI (see table above) - in the TTL mode, when you press the shutter release button halfway, to warn that the SB-28 has not been securely mounted on the camera or that the flash output may have been insufficient for correct exposure.
Cameras in Groups V and VI - in the TTL mode, to indicate that the ISO rating of the film in use is higher than the ISO set on the SB-28's LCD panel, (or lower in the case of the FA camera).
Cameras in Group VI - in the TTL mode, when the shutter speed is set to M90, M250, or B.
Cameras in Group VII - to warn that tflash shooting is not possible.
FM3A, New FM2: -when the shutter speed set is faster than the flash sync speed.
Accessories for multiple flash Sync Cord SC-11 and SC-15 Sync Cords SC-11 and SC-15 are handy when you want to use the SB-28 off-camera or for use with cameras without accessory shoes. These cords also allow you to perform Multiple Flash photography in the Manual (M) mode. The SC-11 is approx. 25 cm (9.8 in.) long and the SC-15 is approx. 1m (3.2 ft) long. TTL Remote Cord SC-17 and SC-24 The TTL Remote Cord SC-17 provides TTL Auto Flash operation when the SB-28 is used off-camera. Its flash shoe comes with one tripod socket and two TTL multiple flash terminals. The TTL Remote Cord SC-24 is for use with F5 cameras mounted with a High-Magnification Finder DW-30 or DW-31 or F4 cameras with a High-Magnification Finder DW-20 or DW-21. Both the SC-17 and SC-24 are approx. 1.5m (4.9 ft) long. TTL Multi-Flash Sync Cord SC-18 and SC-19 Multi-Flash Sync Cords SC-18 or SC-19 are useful for connecting the SB-28 to the multiple flash terminal of the SC-17 or AS-10 for TTL multiple flash operation. The SC-18 is approx. 1.5 m (4.9 ft) long, and the SC-19 is approx. 3 m (9.8 ft) long. TTL Multi-Flash Adapter AS-10 Use Multi-Flash Adapter AS-10 when connecting more than three flash units together for TTL multiple flash operation, or if the secondary flash units are not equipped with multiple flash terminals. The AS-10 comes with one tripod socket and three TTL multiple flash terminals. Sync Terminal Adapter AS-15 The Sync Terminal Adapter AS-15 is necessary when connecting the SB-28 to cameras not having a sync terminal. Wireless Slave Flash Controller SU-4 Useful for multiple flash photography, the SU-4 features a built-in, movable light sensor and an accessory shoe for attachment of a slave Speedlight. The SU-4’s light sensor not only triggers the slave unit to fire in unison with the master flash, but controls the flash duration of the slave unit in sync with the master unit to provide TTL, non-TTL, or Manual operation. TTL Flash Unit Coupler AS-17 for F3-Series cameras Dedicated adapter for F3-Series cameras providing TTL flash operation with Nikon Speedlights such as SB-29 and SB-28 featuring ISO-type mounting foot (not designed for F3).
• You CANNOT use a sync cord when the SB-28 is set to the TTL mode.
Usable sync cords SC-11 (approx. 25 cm) SC-15 (approx. 1m)
NOTE • To connect the SB-28 to a camera without a sync terminal, use optional Sync Terminal Adapter AS-15. • Use the sync/multiple flash terminal when connecting the SB-28 to other Nikon flash units via sync cords. • When the SB-28 is connected to a camera via a sync cord, it provides neither automatic sync speed setting nor ready-light indication inside the camera’s viewfinder. To maintain all functions, use the optional TTL Remote Cord SC-17. • If a non-Nikon flash unit—one incorporating a high-voltage (above 50V) or negative voltage sync circuits—is connected to the SB-28’s sync/multiple flash terminal, the SB-28’s protection circuit is activated, resulting in improper operation of the unit.
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Main Index Pages for Nikon Flash Photography with Nikon F4 and others:
| Part I | Part II | Part III |
Nikon AF-TTL Speedlights | SB-20 (1986) | SB-22 (1987) | SB-23 | SB-24 (1988) | SB-25 (1991/2) | SB-26 (1994) | SB-27(1997) | SB-28 (1997) | Nikon SB-29(s) (2000) | Nikon SB-30 (2003) | Nikon SB-600 (2004) | Nikon SB-800 (2003)
Nikon AF-TTL Speedlight DX-Series: Nikon SB-28DX (1999) | SB-50DX (2001) | SB-80DX (2002) (updated)
Nikon BC-flash Series | Original Nikon Speedlight
SB-2 | SB-3 | SB-4 | SB-5 | SB-6 | SB-7E | SB-8E | SB-9 | SB-E | SB-10
SB-11 | SB-12 | SB-14 | SB-140 UV-IR| SB-15 | SB16A | SB-17 | SB-18, SB-19 | SB-21A (SB-29) Macro flash | Flash Accesories | SF-1 Pilot Lamp
The Camera Body - Features | Reliability | Focusing | Metering | Exposure Control | Lense Compatibility| Various Power Sources | Interchangeable Prisms | Data Film Backs | Focusing Screens | Flash Photography | Other system accessories | Cases for Nikon F4 Series | Remote Control |
| Specification | Main Reference Map | Nikon F4 Variants
Instruction Manual: PDF (4.5M) - External Link
| BACK | to Main Index Page Nikon F4 Series SLR camera Models
| Message Board | for Nikon F4 Series SLR model(s)
| Message Board | for your Nikon Optics in a shared environment
| Message Board | Specifically for Dispose or Looking for Nikon/Nikkor Photographic Equipment
| Back | to Pictorial History of Nikon SLR / rangefinders / Nikonos / digital cameras.
Nikon F | Nikon F2 | Nikon F3 | Nikon F4 | Nikon F5 | Nikon F6 | Nikkormat / Nikomat | Nikon FM | Nikon FE/ FA | Nikon EM/FG/FG20 | Nikon Digital SLRs | Nikon - Other models
Nikon Auto Focus Nikkor lenses:- Main Index Page
Nikon Manual Focus Nikkor lenses:- Fisheye-Nikkor Lenses - Circular | Full Frame | Ultrawides Lenses - 13mm15mm18mm20mm | Wideangle Lenses - 24mm28mm35mm | Standard Lenses - 45mm 50mm 58mm | Telephoto Lenses - 85mm105mm135mm180mm & 200mm | Super-Telephoto Lenses - 300mm 400mm 500mm 600mm 800mm 1200mm |
Special Application lenses:
Micro-Nikkor Lenses - 50mm~55mm -60mm 85mm -105mm 200mm Micro-Zoom 70-180mm
Perspective Control (PC) - 28mm 35mm PC-Micro 85mm
Dedicated Lenses for Nikon F3AF: AF 80mm f/2.8 | AF 200mm f/3.5 EDIF
Depth of Field Control (DC): 105mm 135mm
Medical Nikkor: 120mm 200mm
Reflex-Nikkor Lenses - 500mm 1000mm 2000mm
Others: Noct Nikkor | OP-Nikkor | UV Nikkor 55mm 105mm | Focusing Units | Bellows-Nikkor 105mm 135mm
Nikon Series E Lenses: 28mm35mm50mm100mm135mm | E-Series Zoom lenses: 36~72mm75~150mm70~210mm
MF Zoom-Nikkor Lenses: 25~50mm | 28~45mm | 28~50mm | 28~85mm | 35~70mm | 36~72mm E | 35~85mm | 35~105mm | 35~135mm | 35~200mm | 43~86mm | 50~135mm | 50~300mm | 70~210mm E | 75~150mm E | 80~200mm | 85~250mm | 100~300mm | 180~600mm | 200~400mm | 200~600mm | 360~1200mm | 1200~1700mm
Tele-Converters: TC-1 | TC-2 | TC-200 | TC-201 | TC-300 | TC-301 | TC-14 | TC-14A | TC-14B | TC-14C | TC-14E | TC-16 | TC-16A | TC-20E
Recommended links to understand more technical details related to the Nikkor F-mount and production Serial Number:
http://rick_oleson.tripod.com/index-153.html by: my friend, Rick Oleson
http://www.zi.ku.dk/personal/lhhansen/photo/fmount.htm by: Hansen, Lars Holst
W A R N I N G: The New G-SERIES Nikkor lenses have no aperture ring on the lense, they when operating in manual exposure control even with certain earlier AF Nikon SLR camera models. Similarly, not ALL features provide in a modern AF-S series AF-Nikkor lenses can be utilized fully with a Nikon F4. Please refer to your local distributor for compatibility issue(s).
PLEASE NOTE: Complimentary links are appreciative but it is not necessary, I have limited bandwidth here in this server... So, PLEASE don't distribute this URL to any bulk mailing list or unrelated user-groups, just be a little considerate, thank you. (The more you distribute, the slower this server will response to your requests...). I am NOT a Nikon nor Nikkor expert, so don't send me any mails, use the Message Board Instead. While the content prepared herein should be adequate for anyone to understand and evaluate whether you should invest into a used Nikon F4 pro-camera system for your kind of photography. Well, IF you like what you have seen so far, please help to perfect this site by reporting any broken links or any errors made.
About this photographic site.
HOME - Photography in Malaysia
Credit: Chuck Hester, US for his patience, encouragement and help to setup the various content in this site; Robert Johnson for some of his original images on the F2H-MD appeared in this site; my ex-staff, KiaSu for his superb 3-D logo appeared in this Nikon F2 site; Marc Vorgers from Holland who generously provide me with some of his images of F2AS; MCLau®, who has so much time with me to re-edit the content in this site and not to mention buying a Nikon Coolpix 990 just for this site; Paul Armstrong (email@example.com) for his explantion of the FF2 Slidemagic and Nikon F2 Pin Camera Keat Photo, Kuala Lumpur for providing their Nikon F2A to take some images for this site; Mr Edward Ngoh the great camera collector who provides us his collection of F2AS with MD-2; hawkeye.photographic.com for their images on the Speed Magny film backs; Sean Cranor for his image on Nikon F2 25th Anniversary Model; Ted Wengelaar®, Holland for his continuous flow of input on some of the early Nikon bodies; Genesis-Camera for granting permission to use an image of the SS-F2 camera; Mr Sover Wong, Australia for those great images of his rare F2 Gold;CYLeow ®, photo editor of the Star newspaper, Malaysia for some of his images used in this site. Ms Rissa Chan, Sales manager from Shriro Malaysia who has helped to provide some of the very useful input. HiuraShinsaku®, Nikomat ML, Japan for some of his images on various F2 models; my staff, Wati, Maisa, Mai and my nephew, EEWyn®, who volunteered and helping me did so many of the film scanning works; Hong-sien Kwee of Singapore for all the Nikon F2 Pin camera images appeared in this site; Luigi Crescenzi for many of his images on the Nikon F2 Titan; John for two of his images of the Nikon F2/T used in this site; Contributing photographers or resellers: Jen Siow, Foo KokKin, Arthur Teng, Mark Fallander, John Ishii, Ed Hassel, YoonKi Kim, Jean-Louis, M.Dugentas (Dell Corner.com.), Mr "Arsenall", Yang Zi Xiong and a few images mailed in from surfers with no appropriate reference to their origin. Note:certain content and images appeared in this site were either scanned from official marketing leaflets, brochures published by Nikon and/or contribution from surfers who claimed originality of their own work to publish in this site based on educational merits. The creator of this site will not be responsible for any discrepancies that may arise from such possible dispute except rectifying them after verification."Nikon", "Nikkormat", "Nippon Kokagu KK" & "Nikkor" are registered tradename of Nikon Corporation Inc., Japan. A site made with an Apple IMac.