Classic SLRs Series :
Choice of Shutter-Speed/Lens-Aperture Combinations
The amount of light reaching the film is determined by the combination of lens aperture and shutter speed. Since the two are interrelated, different combinations will give the same amount of exposure. The best combination depends on the results desired. Use fast shutter speeds to freeze motion or slow ones to create deliberate blur. Small apertures give greater depth of field, large ones let the subject stand out against an out-of-focus background.
The table below shows how the aperture and shutter speed are interrelated. All the combinations give the same exposure.
Shutter speed (sec.)
More info is available at a | separate section | on the topic "Exposure" and its relation to Shutter Speed and Aperture.
Extreme Low-Light Metering
The Photomic finder allows you to meter light level requiring 2- to 10-second exposure time at the maximum aperture of the lens in use. First set the shutter speed scale at "B". Turn the shutter-speed selector while depressing the locking button in the center of the ASA film-speed dial until both signal lights go on. Read off the number on the extra long shutter-speed scale appearing opposite the white dot. Then set the shutter at the indicated time using the self-timer on the camera. When measurement is made in this way, the shutter speed visible in the viewfinder remains at "B" regardless of the number on the extra-long shutter-speed scale appearing opposite the white dot.
Remember that at lighting levels lower than EV 0 (e.g., 2 seconds at f/1.4 with ASA 100 film), the exposure meter takes 2 to 3 minutes to reach a steady reading.
If the two signal lights do not go on even after all possible shutter-speed/lens-aperture combinations have been tried, then the available light is either too bright or too dim for the meter's range. Switch to a new film that matches the available light or mount a neutral density (ND) filter onto the lens to cut down on the amount of light; or use artificial lighting to increase luminosity, whatever the case may be. With the 50mm f/1.4 lens and a film speed of ASA 100, the meter's effective range extends from f/1.4 at 8 seconds to f/8 at 1/2000 second.
Unusual Light Situations
When there are severe brightness differences between the subject and the background, you will often obtain better results by setting up the camera so that the subject fills the central part of the viewfinder during exposure measurement. For example, if the picture includes an unusually bright source of light, such as a light bulb, move the camera to center the subject for reading, or if accessible, move in on the subject and take a close-up reading of the part you want to emphasize, and then move back until the desired composition appears in the viewfinder.
For landscapes which include an expanse of sky, tilt the camera downward during measurement to prevent underexposure of the main subject caused by the bright skylight. For backlighted subjects, move up close to and include dark areas of the subject in your reading. The finder is designed to minimize the effect of light entering through the finder eyepiece under normal conditions. However, in the following situations, the use of a finder eyecup is recommended.
(1) Measuring the bright area in the center of the screen will cause underexposure of the main subject.
(2) For correct exposure, first measure the light striking the main subject, then compose And shoot.
• When the camera is in sunlight and the subject is in shade.
• When the stop-down method is used at small apertures.
• When a shaft of sunlight falls between the eye and the eyepiece.
When the signal lights on top of the finder are used to determine exposure, the eyepiece should be covered with the hand to prevent extraneous light from entering the finder.
Depth of Field ( Supplementary info provided in MIR's site )
Depth of field refers to a zone extending in front of and behind the plane of sharpest focus. Within this zone, blur (or lack of definition) will be negligible and everything can be accepted as being in sharp focus. Depth of field extends a greater distance behind the subject in focus than in front. Depth of field depends on three factors: the focal length of the lens, lens-to-subject distance and taking aperture. The smaller the aperture and the shorter the focal length of the lens, the greater the depth of field. Also, the closer the subject, the smaller the depth of field. These three factors can be adjusted independently or in combination to give the photographer creative control over the final picture.
Depth-of-Field Preview Button
The depth-of-field preview button lets you check the depth of field before shooting and make desired adjustments. Press the button and the lens stops down to the preselected aperture to allow you to see how much background or foreground is in or out of focus. Press the button and simultaneously turning the lever will lock the main reflex mirror in upward position.
* Note: When the button is activated, the viewfinder will dim (other than the largest aperture used), but you can notice significant increase of depth of field when smaller aperture is used. For newer AI bodies and non-coupled extensions, this button is also acted as a stopped down exposure metering button.
The depth of field can also be read from the color-coded scale engraved on the lens. The pairs of colored lines correspond to f/numbers of the same color. To find the depth of field at a particular aperture, first focus the lens on the subject. Then check the numbers on the distance scale opposite the colored lines which have the same color as that of the taking aperture to find the depth of field at that aperture.
For example, f/16 on the aperture ring of the 50 mm f/1.4 lens is blue. With the lens prefocused at 17 feet (5 m), the numbers on the distance scale opposite the blue lines show that the depth of field extends from 9 feet (2.7 m) to infinity (OO).
By stopping down the lens aperture, the depth of field will increased, as illustrated by the three photographs at an Illustration Page.
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Recommended links to understand more technical details related to the Nikkor F-mount and production Serial Number:
http://rick_oleson.tripod.com/index-153.html by: my friend, Rick Oleson
http://www.zi.ku.dk/personal/lhhansen/photo/fmount.htm by: Hansen, Lars Holst
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Copyright © 2000. leofoo ®. MIR Web Development Team.
In memory of my friend Com. Augusto Staut, Brazil, 1971-2000.
Credit: Chuck Hester, US for his patience, encouragement and help to setup the various content in this site; Robert Johnson for some of his original images on the F2H-MD appeared in this site; my ex-staff, KiaSu for his superb 3-D logo appeared in this Nikon F2 site; Marc Vorgers from Holland who generously provide me with some of his images of F2AS; MCLau®, who has so much time with me to re-edit the content in this site and not to mention buying a Nikon Coolpix 990 just for this site. Keat Photo, Kuala Lumpur for providing their Nikon F2A to take some images for this site; again, Mr Edward Ngoh the great camera collector who provides us his collection of F2AS with MD-2; hawkeye.photographic.com for their images on the Speed Magny film backs; Sean Cranor for his image on Nikon F2 25th Anniversary Model; Ted Wengelaar®, Holland for his continuous flow of input on some of the early Nikon bodies; CYLeow ® , photo editor of the Star newspaper, Malaysia for some of his images used in this site. Ms Rissa Chan, Sales manager from Shriro Malaysia who has helped to provide some of the very useful input. HiuraShinsaku®, Nikomat ML, Japan for some of his images on various F2 models; my staff, Wati, Maisa, Mai and my nephew, EEWyn®, who volunteered and helping me did so many of the film scanning works. Contributing photographers or resellers: Jen Siow, Foo KokKin, Arthur Teng, Mark Fallander, John Ishii, Ed Hassel, YoonKi Kim, Jean-Louis, M.Dugentas (Dell Corner.com.), Mr "Arsenall" and a few images mailed in from surfers with no appropriate reference to their origin. Dedicated to KU Yeo, just to express our mutual regrets over the outcome of a recent corporate event. Made with a PowerMac, broadcast with a Redhat Linux powered server.