The Minolta XK | XM SLR
Basic Camera Operations: Part V

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Bulb Exposures

Rotate the shutter-speed selector dial so that "B" is aligned with the index. The gray bar in the finder will move to and remain fixed over "B" on the scale, and the shutter will open when the shutter release button is pressed and remain open until it is released.

Making Exposures of 2 to 16 Sec.

Dial.jpg setmanual.jpg slowspeed.jpg
ASA Dial.jpg
With the shutter-speed/function dial set at "B," depress the long-exposure selector lever radially and rotate it so that the index on the collar around the base of the shutter-speed knob is aligned with the desired speed indication of the long-exposure scale on the camera top plate. The speed/function bar in the finder will remain fixed at "B" on the scale for all step speeds longer than 1 sec.

Long Expsoure.jpg
The long-exposure lever can be depressed only with the shutter-speed dial set at "B," and the long-exposure collar index must be returned to "B" on the scale in order to turn the shutter-speed dial from "B" to any other setting,


Holding the Camera and Releasing the Shutter


The way the camera is held when exposures are made and how the shutter is released are as important as focusing for best photographic results, and these become more critical the slower the shutter speed.

To hold the camera horizontally, cradle the bottom of it in the palm of the left hand as shown on the next section with the thumb and index or middle finger on the focusing grip of the lens. The thumb and middle or ring finger of the same hand can be used to turn the aperture ring. Grasp the camera body firmly with the right hand as shown so that the index finger rests on the shutter-release button. In this position, the middle and/or ring fingers of the right hand will actuate the Auto "Senswitch," and the thumb can conveniently operate the film advance lever.

The camera may be rotated to a vertical position when held this way, the only difference being that the rewind-crank end of the camera will rest in the palm of the left hand. To release the shutter, steady the camera or hands holding it firmly against your face, body and/or other support and depress the release button with a slow, steady squeeze. At slower speeds, it is also advisable to hold your breath while releasing the shutter.

For maximum sharpness or exposures too long to permit hand-holding the camera, mount it on a tripod using the built-in socket on the bottom and trip the shutter with a cable release screwed into the threaded socket provided in the shutter release button.

To focus the camera visually with the standard Type P focusing screen, look through the viewfinder with the lens at full aperture and turn the focusing ring on the lens until the upper and lower images in the split-image spot are exactly aligned with no broken lines between them. Less critical focusing can also be done on the surrounding mat field.

For microprism focusing, turn the focusing ring until the image is no longer broken up but appears clear in the microprism spot or circular band.

The camera can also be scale-focused or pre focused by aligning the desired value on the distance scale with the index on the lens barrel.

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Depth-of-Field Scale
The distance behind and in front of the focused distance within which the image appears acceptably sharp is called the depth of field. Besides being greater the shorter the focal length of the lens and vice versa, this increases as the lens is stopped down and becomes greater the farther from the camera the lens is focused.

It is at its least for any given lens in normal mounting when the lens is at maximum aperture (as when metering and focusing normally with MC Rokkor-X or the newer MD Lenses) and at minimum focusing distance. The near and far limits of acceptable sharpness can be determined from the depth-of-field scale on the lens barrel. With the lens focused at a given point, the image will be in satisfactory focus from the nearer value to the farther value on the distance scale indicated by the depth-of-field scale marks for the aperture to be used.

For example, if a 50mm lens is focused at 1.5m (about 5 ft.) and the aperture is F16, the appropriate graduations to left and right of the index on the depth-of-field scale indicate acceptable sharpness from about 1.2m to 2m (approx. 4 to 7ft.).

Stop-Down/Mirror Lock-up Button

Depth of field at any aperture and focusing distance can be previewed visually by pushing the stop-down/Lock-up button to release it to its outer position.

DOF.jpg
This will stop the diaphragm down to the aperture corresponding to the F-number preset on the aperture ring, allowing you to see through the viewfinder how much of the subject is acceptably sharp.

Pushing the stop clown button again to fix it at its inner position will reopen the diaphragm to full aperture.

Infrared Index

For proper focus when making pictures with infrared radiation, first focus your subject with visible light as described above, then turn the focusing ring to the right to align the point of proper focus on the distance scale with the index designated with a small red "R" in the depth-of-field scale.

Film-Plane Index

film plane.jpg
Generally considered as not important feature anymore with modern accessories available for close-up and duplicating works. but nevertheless, those days, it requires you to do a precise measurement of the lens to film plane distance for some specific close up work.

It is a symbol on the camera top plate to the left of the viewfinder indicates the exact plane occupied by the film in the camera. This can be used to measure distance from subject to film precisely for photomicrography, close-ups, etc.

Changing Finders

Prism Front.jpg ReleaseBTN.jpg
To Install

1. Before installing the Auto Electro Finder, make sure that the red-dotted meter coupler is positioned at the red-dotted end of its slot. This is done by using your finger to move the coupler against the spring tension until it catches at the end of its stroke opposite the rest position.

finderbase.jpg
A built-in automatic stop in this finder prevents it from seating properly unless the red dots are aligned; forcibly attempting to seat a coupled finder without the coupler properly positioned will damage the finder and perhaps also the coupling lug on meter-coupled lenses. The above is not applicable to the Plain, High-Magnification, and Waist-Level Finders, which have no meter coupler.

2. Carefully align the finder properly (eyepiece toward back) with the camera's finder receptacle and push the finder into it straight and evenly until it seats and locks firmly in place with a muffled click.

liftfinder.jpg
3. Turn the shutter-speed selector dial clockwise or counterclockwise until it engages with the coupling pin on the body shutter-speed knob and starts turning with click-stops. (Should the dial continue to turn freely without engaging, remove the finder and turn the knob on the body a few click stops in either direction. Then reinstall the finder - not forgetting to reset the coupler first, if applicable - and engage the dial with the pin.)

Note: If the shutter release is pushed while there is no finder installed on the camera when it is on automatic mode, the mirror will stay up, and the shutter will remain open temporarily. Turning the shutter-speed selector dial to ''X'' will return the mirror to its lower position and close the shutter at once. Even if this is not done, the electronic circuitry will reset the mirror and shutter automatically after about 30 sec. Toward not spoiling adjacent frames under certain conditions, however, it is advisable to reset the camera as quickly as possible.

Removefinder.jpg
To Remove

Grasp the finder and, while pushing the finder release button all the way in, lift the finder straight out of its receptacle.


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Basic Camera Operations XK/XM/X-1: 5 Parts
Specification for XK/XM/X-1:
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Main Reference Map for XK/XM/X-1:
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Additional info on
XK | XM Motor - by Satosh Oka
More images on XK Motor By : Stephen Schwartz (New)
1974-1975
XK USA fold-out Product brochure in HTML files
and a huge
PDF (1.3MB) copy. Contributed by : Mark Wasmer

Some fabulous views of the Internal Structures that made up of a Minolta XM by Gino Mancini (New);Three great images of a Minolta XM/XM Motor scanned by Hervé Prigent of France (New)

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Credit: Satosh Oka for his superp imagery of the XK Motor and XD-7; ® Stephen Schwartz, for his images of the XK Motor appearing in this site. Mark Wasmer, for his collection of the original marketing brochure. Oleg Volk, who has given me some help; Dick Sullivan whom I had used some references in his site; Hervé Prigent <hprigent@mac.com>of France for his great scanned images from brochure of Minolta XM/XM Motor; Gino Mancini <Gino@mancini99.freeserve.co.uk> for his images of the internal structure of the XM; CYLeow ® , photo editor of the Star newspaper, Malaysia, Mr Poon from Poon photo for their input on Minolta older SLR bodies. Minolta, XD-7, XK, XM, X1, Rokkor, MC lenses are either registered tradenames or trade mark of Milnolta Optical Co. Ltd, Japan. A site dedicted to all Minolta fans worldwide. Made with an Imac.