Modern Classic SLRs Series :
Nikon F - Infrequent
Questions about the Nikon F
You can do a count of the number of questions asked about the F on usenet -- everyone
wants to know everything about the F5 or the EOS-1n or the N90s/F90x or the Maxxum/Dynax
9000 (ok, so no one wants to know much about the Maxxum, more's the pity), but no
one wants to know anything about the F.
Caveat: This question-and-answer
business assumes that you know basic operating details and quirks of the F. All of
these are explained on other pages; I would recommend that you at least feel comfortable
with your F before proceeding.
Note: Issues other than what you can find
from this site, I encourage you to utilize the convenience of the Message Board provided
here in this site instead.
a Nikon F worth?
do you remove the prism?
do you remove the screen?
prisms are available?
metering options do I have with the F?
screens are available?
a Nikon F Red Dot?
do you work the mirror lock-up on a F?
come my F has plastic tips on the wind lever?
do you use flashbulbs on the F?
should I look for in a used F?
size are the forbidden mercury cells?
the significance of "Nippon Kogaku" markings?
would I use my Photomic on non-prong coupled objects?
do I motorise my F?
do I mount the 21f/4?
do I take multiple exposures?
do I take my F to get fixed?
What's a Nikon
- Very roughly speaking,
as of October 1996, you can probably find a Nikon F body in decent shape without
any sort of prism for about $100-150 or so. Special models, like the Red Dot or others
go for a premium of up to maybe $1000 depending on rarity and condition, of course.
I'm not sure how many different models there are, but maybe the most collectible
model (good luck!) would be one of the F's built for NASA during the Apollo moon missions.
- How do you
remove the prism?
- On almost all
bodies, it's enough to just push the button on the back of the camera (near the rewind
knob) in with a thin object (pencil erasers are much better than thumbs at this,
unless you have one of the late-model F's with the "groove" cut out of
the surrounding ring or immensely strong nails). On the FTn prism, I think that you
have to push a lever towards the prism at the same time, but I have no personal experience.
- How do you
remove the screen?
- After you take
off the prism, keep the little silver button pushed in and turn the camera upside
down over some soft surface. Be very careful with the convex side -- it's made out
of plastic and scratches very easily.
- What prisms
- There are four
metering prisms (next question), an "action finder" -- think of it as a
super-HP finder, a waist-level finder, the eyelevel prism, of course, and a 6x magnifying
finder. Note that if you take the "Nikon" nameplate off of the front of
the camera, you can use any of the F2 prisms, except for the metering prisms (F2
metering prisms use the camera body batteries, while F meter prisms use batteries
in the prism itself). Plus, you get the added cachet of not having the theft-tempting
"Nikon" nameplate on the front of your camera. On the other hand, I'm not
sure that thieves nowadays would really go after an F (distinctive, yes, but not
- What metering
options do I have with the F?
- You can use a
handheld meter, three clip-on (non-TTL) meters, a non-TTL meter prism, an averaging
TTL meter prism, a centerweighted TTL meter prism, or a centerweighted semiautomatic-indexing
TTL meter prism. Respectively, they are the meter-of-your-choice, Model III (and
I and II, probably), Photomic, T, Tn, and FTn prisms.
- Hey! You lied;
I thought these were supposed to be difficult questions?
- Eh, so sue me.
I think that the true test comes later, when the questions get slightly more difficult
and my answers less intelligible (but I am trying to re-edit this document).
- What screens
- You can use the
F and F2 screens interchangeably. Basically, all of Nikon's screens are available,
including the standard Type A, the etched-grid Type E, and various others, including
some plain Fresnel lenses, ground glasses, split-image rangefinders, microprisms,
and various combinations thereof. Yes, the Type A was standard issue on the F; the
F2 came with a Type K, which added a nice little microprism donut around the split-image
rangefinder (the RF always goes dark, anyways -- nice to have something to focus
- What's a Nikon
F Red Dot?
- The quick answer
is that it's a Nikon F body that originally came with an eyelevel prism when the
Photomic T was just introduced. The dot was an indication that the top plate casting
had been revised so that the slightly larger Photomic T could fit without modification.
- How do you
work the mirror lock-up (MLU) on a F?
- As a preliminary
response, let me say that the lock-up on an F is very kludge-y compared to that on
an F2 or even a Nikkormat. That aside, it's fairly easy to do, as long as you're
not in a hurry or didn't follow instructions well in grade school -- I know that
I didn't. The way that I've used the lockup is as follows:
- Wind the F, thus
"priming" the shutter for release.
- Focus and compose
your picture (unless you're using one of the mirror lock-up lenses, when you'd be
using an external finder, anyway). Your F is on a tripod, isn't it?
- Turn the ridge-y
knob on the bottom part of the lensmount's right side (the same side as the depth-of-field
preview button) counterclockwise until the black dot on the button lines up with
the red dot on the ring around the button (pocket full of posey, ashes, ashes ...).
- Press gently down
on the shutter release button, until you hear the mirror go up. Incidentally, if
you push the shutter release slowly when you haven't lined up the two dots in step
3, the mirror will always fire up before the shutter is released -- great if you
want to get rid of some vibration for long-exposure hand-held shots (1/4-1/30 sec).
This is comparable to obtaining a focus lock with an AF camera through the shutter
- Now that the mirror
is locked up, you can either put on one of the mirror lock-up lenses or you can go
ahead and squeeze the button down the rest of the way to release the shutter.
- If you don't
want any more pictures to with the mirror locked-up, turn the ridge-y knob of step
3 clockwise to line up the two black dots before winding the film for another
shot. If the camera is wound, you'll just have to live with another shot with the
As a side note,
the hurried technique that results in a frame being wasted is:
- Turn the ridge-y
knob to line up the black and red dots.
- Take a picture
(wind and release). The mirror will go up for the exposure and stay up; this is the
- Now (assuming
that you composed carefully for the previous picture and had the camera on a tripod
so that you didn't move it significantly) take as many pictures as you'd like with
- Forget to turn
the knob back to line up the two black dots and wind the film ahead anyway. Curse
the design, turn the ridge-y knob, take a picture. This time, the mirror comes back
down after the exposure. I guess that this, too, is a "wasted" frame.
to the F2 procedure for MLU:
- Push in the depth-of-field
preview button and turn the little collar around it clockwise. The mirror will go
up, regardless of whether you wound the camera or not, and you don't have to carefully
half-squeeze the shutter release.
- Turn the collar
back counterclockwise. The mirror will go down, regardless of whether the shutter
is "primed" or not.
- How come my
F has (lacks) plastic tips on the wind and self-timer levers?
- The plastic tips
are mainly cosmetic introductions in the last years of F production, when the F2
had been introduced. On a sheer comfort level, I'd have to say that the F2's plastic-tipped
winding lever is a lot more comfortable than that of my F (scratches my glasses less
-- I'm left-eyed, but part of the comfort is the much better smoothness in the F2's
wind and the shorter stroke), but the all-metal levers are nice in that they're reminiscent
of the S-series rangefinders. Besides, the all-metal levers are gracefully curved
to fit around the shutter release button, while the plastic-tipped ones aren't. Different
strokes for different folks, I guess. Sorry; I couldn't resist.
- Why don't you
organize this page any better?
- I'm lazy. I have
research (sleeping in the library) to do, too.
- How do you
use flashbulbs on the F?
- The first thing
to know is that you can use flashbulbs, given one of the BC-series of flashguns.
The second thing to know is how to set the delay on firing the PC-socket. This delay
is set by lifting up on the outer ring of the shutter-speed dial and turning so that
different symbols and letters show up in the window just in "front" of
the shutter speed dial. Note that you need to take off any Photomic metering head
(or the Model meters) before doing so, in order to access the shutter speed dial.
Some flashbulbs will let you take pictures that "sync" at 1/1000 of a second,
because their flash duration is typically longer than 1/1000. Personally, if you
need a "sync" that high, you might be better off with an electronic flash
(durations typically from 1/700 - 1/30 000), but I'll admit that there's some benefit
to being able to fire at such a high shutter speed -- that way, you get to make sure
that nothing in the background is too blurry, or have a nice fill effect on sunny
days. Plus, although flashbulbs are single-use devices, their light output is exceeded
only by the very largest of electronic flashes.
| Flash Bulb | Shutter Speed |
| | Make +-+-+-+-+--+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| +--------+--------+--------+--------+1| | | | | | | | | | | |
|Class| G.E. | | | |0|5|2|1| | | | | | | | |
| |Westing-|Sylvania| Mazda | West |0|0|5|2| |3|1| | | | | |
| | house | | | |0|0|0|5|60|0|5|8|4|2|1|B|
| FP | PH/6 | Type | No.6 | No.6 | #1 |#2| #3 |
| | | FP/26 | No.6Z | No.6Z | | | |
| | | | F1 | SM | | | |
| F | PH/SM | Type SF| F3 | SF | % |#5| #4 |
| | | | F5 | SS | | | |
| | | | Press | M5 |%| #1 |#2| #3 |
| | PH/5 |Press 25| No.3 | No.3 | |#| | |
| M | AG-1 | AG-1 | No.5 | AG-1 | % |1|#2| #3 |
| | M5 | M25 | Z5 |Z-Press | | | | |
| | PH/M2 |Type M2 | No.0 | No.0 | % | #3 |
| | | | 2-M | MX.0 | | |
| X | All Electronic Flashes | % | #4 |
#1 = green dot #4 = red F, red X
#2 = red dot #5 = white dot, red F
#3 = red dot, red F % = unuseable (no symbol)
According to the
Nikon-Nikkormat Handbook (J.D. Cooper), the socket of the BC-7 is designed
to accept three types of miniature bulbs: S.C. bayonet base, minature base, and AG-1;
the bulbs specifically recommended are FP 6, FP 26, M3, and AG-1 (in that order),
along with the blue-coated versions of them (e.g. they have a "B" suffix:
FP 6B, FP 26B, etc.). The blue-coated bulbs are required for daylight-balanced film,
as the uncoated bulbs are tungsten bulbs (and therefore require either black and
white or tungsten-balanced film).
William Fleming sells flashbulbs, as does
I have had no dealings with them in the past, so I can give no recommendations (either
for or against), but Mr. Cress, at least, seems to be a fairly frequent contributor
to rec.photo.marketplace. You could probably ask
him more technical questions regarding flashbulbs and flashbulb equipment in general.
- The battery required
is the Eveready 504 (equivalent: Duracell M504), a 15V dry-cell battery. You can
order this through Radio
their special-order service, Radio Shack Unlimited. The part number is "RSU
10048510" and it costs $6.19 US. Mr. Cress also sells this battery. Varta sells
an alkaline battery (the V74PX) that fits, although alkalines are specifically not
recommended by J.D. Cooper in the N-N'mat H'book. Many thanks to John
for his help with batteries.
- What should
I look for in a used F?
- It's usually a
matter of what you should look out for. As with all cameras, check to see that the
mirror-damping strip isn't too badly degraded (it's the thin foam bumper on the top
of the mirror box that the tip of the mirror strikes when it fires up). If it is,
though, it's a fairly easy fix, but I'd recommend taking it to a shop, where they'd
be in charge of cleaning all of the little foam bits out of your camera after the
deed is done. You also want to make sure that there are very few scratches in the
screen of the F. Although not damaging to its photographic ability, it certainly
is annoying to gaze through various lines as you're trying to compose. There are
enough F's out there that you shouldn't have to settle for the first one you find.
Pop off the prism and look at the screen itself -- the top side (convex) is made
of plastic and scratches rather easily. While you're at it, you might as well check
out the prism and make sure that there aren't any silvering problems or chips in
the glass -- all of these are annoying to deal with when looking through the camera,
but keep in mind that they're not fundamentally damaging to the picture-taking ability
of the camera, just your view.
Next, you'll want
to make sure that the mechanics are working fine: try out all of the shutter speeds,
and "time" them by ear to make sure that they're all at least fairly reasonable
(i.e., 1/8th shouldn't sound like 1/125). If the speeds seem to drag a bit, run through
each speed about twenty times to see if it's not just semi-dried lubricants; F's
are marvelously tough and often a slow shutter can be helped by giving it a small
workout. Lock the mirror up and fire off a shot to make sure that the mirror lock
works properly. Before you release the mirror-lock, take off the back and look through
the shutter (or try to) when holding the camera up to a strong light source -- you
shouldn't see any pinpoint holes. Advance the film and check the other shutter curtain
carefully for holes.
Nikon F Photomic
heads have a fairly poor reputation for reliability, as they relied upon the universally
reviled "ring resistor" to communicate lens aperture to the meter. Basically,
it was a poorly-sealed ceramic plate that is irreplaceable if it gets dirty (and
scratched) or cracked. Actually, I have been told that there is an outfit (below,
in one of the later questions) that is able to replace this resistor, but I am not
sure if it would be economical or not. You want to make sure that a Photomic head
does not have a "jumpy" meter movement when moving through the aperture
ranges, which indicates a dirty ring resistor and probable eventual failure. Of course,
this is assuming that you have a forbidden (well, at least in the US) mercury battery
set in the finder, or a reasonable placebo for them (Wein makes cells with the proper
voltage and size, and you can always get a repairman to calibrate your finder to
run off of alkalines). Wouldn't you really rather have a hand-held meter and an eyelevel
prism and feel like a studly photojournalist from the mists of the past?
- No. But I was
asking the questions, right?
- Right. Sorry.
Got carried away.
- So what size
are these verboten cells?
- As far as I know,
they're PX625 (or equivalent) mercury cells -- I need to check again, though. You
might be able to find the Wein cells, but Phillippe Ducor warns me that they only
last about two to three months. In one of the more recent (11 or 12/96) issues of
Popular Photography, they introduced an adaptor for silver oxide batteries
that regulated their voltage to conform to that of mercury batteries; as I remember,
it was slightly pricey, but it just might be the only game in town for mercury-powered
Slightly more recent
update on the adapter: try looking at C.R.I.S. Camera's website, or, more specifically,
Current (1998) price is about $30 US and it lets you use standard MS76 silver cells
(pick 'em up at your local Radio Shack for $2 US). I haven't tried it yet, but am
sort of looking to get a smaller, more bang-e-able camera (a'la Olympus 35RC, Canonet
QL17 GIII) that does take mercury cells. Then again, for about the same price, you
could get a repairman to recalibrate your meter; both are reasonably permanent solutions.
- What's the
significance of the "Nippon Kogaku Tokyo" marking on the top plate of the
- Nikon switched
the die-stamper on their lines around about 1965-ish (I'm not sure exactly when)
from "N.K.T." to "Nikon" for the top plate. I know for sure that
a 674468x has the "N.K.T." on the top plate, and that a (probably) later
68xxxxx has "Nikon" instead. Basically, it just means that your camera
is older than the general Nikon F, but a better way to tell would be via the s erial
number (which does not correspond to the actual date of manufacture -- the
640xxxx's were made in 1959 and the 74xxxxxx were made in 1972.
- How would I
use my Photomic/T/Tn/FTn on a bellows (or with non-prong coupled lenses)?
- You need to slide
the prong all the way to the right of the prism (i.e., towards the lens-mount button,
not the DOF button) and employ stop-down metering. For those of you without FTn's,
you also need to set your film ASA to correspond to the red dot on the ASA/max-aperture
indexing ring (that being the red dot that's to the left of "1.4", not
the red dot that indicates that you have one of the nice bodies that didn't need
major surgery to fit a Photomic T). The renowned Red Dot, by the way, should be next
to the serial number.
- When I'm doing
TTL flash exposure at a 1:1 macro ratio, do I need to dial in the two stops of exposure
compensation, or will the sensor take care of that for me?
- Whoa! You must
have a F3 (or later), which actually does TTL flash exposure. If, on the other hand,
you have to calculate macro compensations manually, the simple answer is that your
effective aperture becomes (1 + M)*indicated aperture. So at 1:2, or half of life-size,
you need to open up one stop and at 1:1, you need to open up two stops. (and the
answer to the question is no, the TTL sensor will take care of your exposure, including
whatever filtering effects, etc. are in place).
- So are you
some sort of camera Luddite, then? What's the deal with having an F in the first
place, and why do you use such outdated technology?
- Well, for one
thing, my investment has been cast, for better or worse, on an eclectic collection
of non-AI and AI lenses (I do own a nifty IF-ED 300f/4.5 AI-S, though). If I were
to upgrade to AF tomorrow, I'd have to punt nearly all of the lenses to realize any
sort of benefit from autofocussing. Besides which, my eyes are sound enough to do
manual focus, despite having worn glasses most of my life. At the time I bought the
F, I was a starving student (actually, I still am, but my money is going to the wrong
place -- lenses -- rather than food) and the F had the critical features I wanted
-- fully mechanical, 1 to 1/1000 shutter speeds, durable, 100% viewfinder -- at a
price less than an FM or FM2 (which I was also looking for). I did not consider Nikkormat,
partly out of ignorance and partly because of the somewhat unusual control layout.
I'd rather throw my money at lenses than at the light-tight box that holds the film.
On the other hand, I do miss some features, such as a built-in light meter and TTL
flash metering, but not as much as you might think. I have gotten enough practice
metering with a hand-held meter, mostly incident-averaging, that I now tend to distrust
built-in meters; although it slows me down, it helps me concentrate on what mood
I want to convey as well as the composition required -- I find photography more of
a contemplative art than one best solved by throwing film at it until you get one
- How do I motorise
two different motorised backs for the F, the F36 and the F250, which, as the names
imply, take up to 36 and 250 exposures, respectively. Both of these motors slip on
and off the F just like the regular back, i.e. they're not things that you screw
into the tripod socket, like the MD-2 and MD-4. Both of these motors require some
kind of a power pack and a modification to the F body itself. As box-stock, the F
has no couplings to the motor, like the F2 and F3 do (i.e., no little swivel-plates
and levers and other gizmos); you need to add what's becoming known as a "F
Motor Drive Plate", which replaces the bottom of your camera (not the back,
but the bottom inside the camera casting) with a bottom that has the added levers
and gizmos. There is a chance that the F will not synchronize properly, even with
the added plate, so you'd have to find a technician to get the F to synchronize.
After you've added the plate and the motor, you need to track down either the corded
pack (uses 8 "C" size batteries and works with either the F36 or F250),
the cordless pack (uses 8 "AA" batteries, for the F36 only), or one of
the innumerable cordless packs that were made in the early sixties, before Nikon
finally made the cordless pack. The F36 has a "countdown" timer, which
counts down the number of frames that you can shoot (settable anywhere from 36 to
0), a shutter release on the back of the drive, and a "firing rate converter"
which lets you select the speed of the drive, based on the shutter speed of the camera
-- this is needed so that the drive motors don't try to rip out the shutter-speed
gears every time you try to take, say, 1-second exposures at 4 frames per second.
The cord and cordless packs both add another firing button, along with a L/S/C collar
which sets the firing mode of the drive to lock/single/continuous shot. I think that
there's a L/S/C collar on the back of the F36 as well, but I'm not sure. The neat
thing about the cordless pack is that you can still use your self-timer lever --
something that's impossible with the MD-2 mounted on an F2. Unfortunately, that's
about the only advantage that the F36/cordless has on an MD-2/MB-1: all F2's are
synchronized for a motor, and the absolute worst surgery that needs to be done (when
mounting an MD-1 or -2) is the removal of the O/C key on the bottom of the F2 (which
can be done with a dime in half a minute or so). The MD-3 requires no surgery at
all, since it (and the F36) lacks a power rewind.
- How do I mount
that #%@$ 21f/4?
The 21f/4 is
one of those oddball mirror lock-up lenses. In addition, the rear element is not
completely circular -- it started off being round, but then Nikon decided that they
had to take a sliver back, so that they could clear the back of the mirror as you
put the lens on. Of course, if you can't take the rear cap off, all this is moot.
Because of the un-round rear element, the lens has an additional prong to make sure
that the lens is oriented in the right direction. Because of the prong, which happens
to overlap one of the three bayonet "teeth", you can't just flick the rear
cap on and off as is usual. Assuming that your lens has been stored at infinity focus,
you need to turn the lens itself so that the focus mark is not at the infinity focus
mark -- I'm not sure where it ends up (maybe around 3 feet or so?), but you need
to do this so that the additional prong lines up with one of the bayonet teeth --
then you can lock up the mirror, put the lens on, and shoot away with great delight.
By the way, as far as I know, the F and F2 are the only Nikon bayonets that will
take the 21f/4, as their mounts contain the proper tab to engage the extra prong
-- other cameras, including the F3, do not have it. So, should you decide to spend
$1000 US on an obsolete (singlecoated but superb, small, and symmetric) wideangle,
plan on budgeting another $100-300 for a nice F or F2.
- How would I
take a multiple exposure with the F?
The F doesn't
have as nice of a multiple exposure (ME) facility as does the F3, or even the F2,
but taking ME's is not as big of a chore as mirror lock-up can be. The as-yet untested
answer is to
- take the first
- wind the film
- turn the A/R collar
around the shutter release to "R" (for rewind) -- note that the mirror
will flip up at this point, so don't panic into thinking that the camera is taking
pictures on its own
- rewind the film
carefully back a frame by watching the motion of the little line in the middle of
the shutter speed dial -- it makes one complete rotation for every frame
- turn the shutter
release back to "A" and take the second exposure (and repeat steps 2-5
as often as desired)
What about exposure?
My rule-of-thumb is for a multiple exposure incorporating N exposures, decrease each
exposure from properly-exposed by N-1 stops (i.e., for a double-exposed frame, decrease
the exposure of each shot by one stop). It's best to experiment and bracket, though.
- Where do I
get my F repaired?
I don't like to give out specific recommendations, but I've received input from several
sources on this, so I'll just leave with the disclaimer that I have not used any
of the following shops and that you do so at your own risk (but other people have
had good experiences with them, so you should feel reasonably comfortable). Probably
a better source to consult would be the Alpa Resources Page (and if you know anything
about the jewel-like Alpas, anyone able to fix an Alpa should be able to fix just
about any camera out there ...).
For general problems,
such as shutter or wind mechanism repair, etc., you will want to try (from the Camera
Repair Resource Guide,
(c)1994-1997 by R. Lee Hawkins):
Camera Repair Service
- 37 W. 47th Street
New York, NY
- Essex Camera
- 100 Amor Avenue
on Bald Mountain
- 113 Bald Mountain
(or P.O. Box
if you have a problem with your ring resistor, you might want to try:
the Ring Resistor
- 6300 Jimmy Carter
who has used this repair shop and wanted to share it with everyone.
I deeply appreciate
efforts in correcting my rumors about the Red Dot model. Dave Hoag helped me pin down the
N.K.T. marking to a few serial numbers.
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Recommended links to understand
more technical details related to the Nikkor F-mount and production Serial Number:
http://rick_oleson.tripod.com/index-153.html by: my friend, Rick Oleson
http://www.zi.ku.dk/personal/lhhansen/photo/fmount.htm by: Hansen, Lars Holst
Modern Classic SLRs Series :
F - Index
© 1998. Michael C. Liu ®
by: leofoo ®.
Credit: Hiura Shinsaku® from Nikomat Club of Japan for feeding some useful inputs
on the introductory page. The great 3D logo by Kiasu; Ted Wengelaar®,
Holland for his continuous flow of input of early Nikon bodies. Stephen Gandy's Cameraquest; Marc Vorgers from Holland for
his additinal images on Nikon F Apollo; Hayao Tanabe
corrected my Red Dot and Early F assertions. Gray Levett, Grays of Westminster
publishes an excellent monthly historical look at Nikon products, from where I learned
about the high-speed F's. Made
with a PowerMac, broadcast with
a Redhat Linux
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