Modern Classic SLRs Series :
Nikon SB-28 AF-TTL Speedlight
Instruction Manual - Part IV

 
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TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif Mode (For cameras in Group V: F-501/N2020, F-401s/N4004s, F-401/N4004, F-301/N2000):

Available flash operation in TTL Auto Flash Mode: Flash settings: 1 Press the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until appears icon-TTL.gif on the LCD panel. 2 Set the aperture on the SB-28’s LCD panel, then confirm the flash shooting distance range. Guide to determining aperture : For F-501/N2020 and F-301/N2000 (in Programmed Auto (P) mode): Select the aperture for the film in use from the table (or the aperture set by the camera in aperture-priority auto (A) or manual (M) mode). Press the SB-28's icon-plus.gif or icon-minus.gif button to set the corresponding aperture on the SB-28's LCD panel, then confirm the flash shooting distance range.

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TTLflashGroup5c.gif

For F-401s/N4004s and F-401/N4004 (at ISO 100) (in Shutter-Priority Auto (S) or Programmed Auto (P) exposure mode): Select the aperture from the table (aperture set on the camera in aperture-priority auto or manual mode) and set the same aperture on the SB-28’s LCD panel by pressing the SB-28's icon-plus.gif or icon-minus.gif buttons, then check the flash shooting distance range. Note: *In shutter-priority auto mode, the aperture is automatically selected by the camera.

3 Wait for the ready-light to come in focus before taking the picture. If the ready-light blinks for approx. 3 seconds after shooting, this indicates the light may have been insufficient for correct exposure. In this case, use a wider aperture or move closer to the subject.

TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif Mode (For MANUAL FOCUS Nikon SLR cameras in Group VI: Nikon FM3A, FA, FE2, FG, Nikonos V):

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In aperture-priority auto (A) mode, the shutter speed is automatically set to 1/250 sec. for the FM3A, FA, FE2, and 1/90 sec. for the FG, Nikonos V. When setting a shutter speed at a much slower speed, set the camera’s exposure mode to Manual (M). Standard TTL Flash is not possible if the shutter speed is set to M250 or B (bulb) for the FA, FE2, and M90 for the FG, Nikonos V.

Flash settings: 1 Select the flash mode. Press the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until icon-TTL.gif appears on the LCD panel. 2 Check the shooting distance. Press the SB-28's {or}button until the aperture set on the lens is set on the SB-28's LCD panel, then confirm the flash shooting distance range. 3 Wait for the ready-light to come on and make sure the subject is in focus before taking the picture. If the ready-light blinks for approx. 3 seconds after shooting, this indicates the light may have been insufficient for correct exposure. In this case, use a wider aperture or move closer to the subject.

MFa.gif MFb.gif TTLflashF4c.gif


Non-TTL Auto Flash SB28iconA.gif Mode -(applicable to ALL Nikon SLRs in all groups) In Non-TTL Auto Flash shooting, the SB-28’s light output automatically changes to match the flash-to-subject distance. The light, however, is not measured through the lens, but is measured by the light sensor on the front of the SB-28. The SB-28 can be used in Non-TTL Auto Flash mode with any Nikon camera/lens combination at any ISO film speed. You can choose apertures from f/2 to f/16 at ISO 100.

Auto1.gif Auto2.gif
Flash settings: 1 Select the flash mode. Press the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until SB28iconA.gif·appears on the LCD panel. 2 Select the aperture. Press the icon-select.gif button, then press the icon-plus.gif or icon-minus.gif button to change the aperture, bringing the subject within the flash shooting distance range.

Camera settings: 3 Select the exposure mode. Set the camera’s exposure mode to Aperture-priority auto (A) or Manual (M). 4 Set the aperture on the lens. Set the aperture that appears on the SB-28’s LCD panel on the lens. The subject will be overexposed if you set a larger aperture (smaller f-number) on the camera than on the SB-28, and underexposed if you set a smaller one (larger f-number). 5 Set the correct shutter speed. Set the camera to its highest flash sync shutter speed.

TTLflashF4c.gif
6 Wait for the ready-light to come on and make sure the subject is in focus before taking the picture. If the ready-light blinks for approx. 3 seconds after shooting, this indicates the light may have been insufficient for correct exposure. In this case, use a wider aperture or move closer to the subject.

Advanced operation For handling difficult lighting situations or expressing your ideas In addition to convenient Auto Flash, the SB-28 offers a host of other advanced operations to match your creative ideas or when unusual lighting situations are encountered.

Manual Flash icon-M.gif Mode (For cameras in all groups) Manual flash photography is provided when shooting subjects in which the correct exposure is difficult to obtain in the TTL or Non-TTL Auto Flash Mode. 2 Adjust the flash output level. Press the icon-plus.gif or icon-minus.gif button to choose a flash output level.

Ma.gif Mb.gif
Flash settings 1 Select the flash mode. Press the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until icon-M.gif appears on the LCD panel.

Mc.gif
The indicator changes every time you press the icon-minus.gif button:

Md.gif
The indicator changes every time you press the icon-minus.gif button:

The numbers in parentheses ( ) represent the adjustable flash output level in ±1/3 steps. The indicator bar icon-barA.gif on the LCD panel changes to match the shooting distance at the flash output level set, and the corresponding exposure compensation value is displayed on the LCD panel. To extend the flash shooting distance range, choose a flash output level close to 1/1 or set the lens to a larger aperture (smaller f-number). icon-FP.gif indicator appears only when used in combination with the SB-28 and cameras in Group I (except F80-Series/N80-Series, F70-Series/N70). (See section on FP High-Speed Flash sync. icon-FP.gif in Manual Flash icon-repeat.gif mode.)

Camera settings: 3 Select the exposure mode. Set the camera’s exposure mode to Aperture-priority auto (A) or Manual (M). 4 Set the aperture. For cameras in Groups I and II with Nikkor lenses with a built-in CPU: the aperture on the camera as you watch the indicator bar icon-barA.gif on the panel as it changes to match the shooting distance. For other camera/lens combinations: Press the icon-plus.gif or icon-minus.gif button to change the aperture on the LCD panel. Then set the same aperture on the aperture ring. Note: You can calculate the correct shooting distance by using the guide number equation. (See section on Guide Numbers for determining correct aperture in Manual icon-M.gif and Repeating icon-repeat.gif Flash mode.).

TTLflashF4c.gif
5 Wait for the ready-light to come on and make sure the subject is in focus before taking the picture.

Synchronization in continuous shooting in Manual icon-M.gif mode. The SB-28 is able to recycle fast enough to synchronize with a motor-driven camera firing continuously up to six frames per sec. at a 1/64 flash output level. It is possible to take up to 40 flash pictures in rapid succession.

SD-7 uses C-type alkaline-manganese batteries. Because the European version of the SB-28 comes with a different shaped connector, Nikon DC Units SD-7, SD-8 and the Power Bracket Unit SK-6 are not compatible. Fresh and same type batteries must be used in both the SB-28 and optional Nikon DC Units SD-8/8A*, and Power Bracket Unit SK-6/6A*.
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Allow the SB-28 to cool off for at least 10 minutes after the maximum number of continuous firing shown in the table.

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Even if the number of continuous firings is less than those listed above, it's a good idea to let the SB-28 cool off as often as possible when using it in a warm environment.

FP High-Speed Flash sync icon-FP.gif in Manual Flash icon-M.gif mode For Nikon F6. F5, F100, F90X/N90s, F90-Series/N90 The SB-28 allows you to use faster shutter speeds for flash synchronization. With FP High-Speed Flash sync icon-FP.gif, the flash emits light at an extremely rapid rate, while the shutter curtains travel to expose the film. This enables you to use a faster shutter speed as well as a wider aperture to achieve shallower depth of field to blur the background. Attach the SB-28 to the camera and turn on both the SB-28 and the camera, then set the SB-28 to FP High-Speed Flash sync icon-FP.gif.

Camera settings 1 Set the exposure mode to Manual (M). 2 Set the aperture. With Nikkor lenses with a built-in CPU: Rotate the command dial on the camera or the lens aperture ring (for F90X/N90s, F90-Series/N90 cameras) as you watch the indicator bar icon-barA.gif on the LCD panel change to match the shooting distance. With Nikkor lenses without a built-in CPU: Press the icon-plus.gif or icon-minus.gif button to change the aperture on the LCD panel. Then set the same aperture on the lens aperture ring. 3 Set the shutter speed. Set the shutter speed between 1/250 and 1/4000 sec. The guide number for FP High-Speed Flash sync icon-FP.gif varies with the selected shutter speed and is less than that for regular flash synchronization. (See page 51 on icon-FP.gif guide numbers.) • In the icon-FP.gif mode, when taking flash photographs with a shutter speed slower than 1/250 sec., it is recommended to use normal flash operation because the guide number is less in the icon-FP.gif mode. • If you set the SB-28’s flash mode to a mode other than Manual icon-M.gif icon-FP.gif with your camera’s shutter speed set higher than 1/250 sec., the shutter speed is automatically set to 1/250 sec.

FPa.gif
Flash settings 4 Select the flash mode. Press the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until icon-M.gif appears on the LCD panel. 5 Set icon-FP.gif on the LCD panel. Press the icon-plus.gif or icon-minus.gif button until icon-FP.gif appears on the LCD panel. The indicator bar icon-barA.gif on the LCD panel changes to show the shooting distance.
FPb.gif
The indicator changes every time you press the icon-minus.gif button:

FPc.gif
The indicator changes every time you press the icon-minus.gif button:

6 Wait for the ready-light to come on and make sure the subject is in focus before taking the picture. A small amount of underexposure may result in a more pleasing photograph by shooting a subject which is further to the right by 1 or 2 steps from the distance represented by the indicator bar icon-barA.gif on the LCD panel. If the flash-to-subject distance does not match the appropriate shooting distance shown by the indicator bar icon-barA.gif choose a different setting for the zoom-head position (smaller than the focal length of the lens in use) or move closer to or farther away from the subject.

FPGN.gif
For film speeds other than ISO 100, multiply the guide numbers by the factors shown in the above chart. For example, for a film speed of ISO 400, with the zoom-head adjusted to 35mm, and a shutter speed of 1/500 sec., the icon-FP.gif guide number is 12 x 2 = 24 (m), or 39 x 2 = 78 (ft).

Notes on flash photography in FP High-Speed Flash sync icon-FP.gif Do not use the built-in wide flash adapter. When used, M20 or M18, icon-M.gif and icon-FP.gif blink on the LCD panel as a warning. Detaching the SB-28 When you remove the SB-28 from the F5, F100, F90X/N90s or F90- Series/N90, be sure to cancel FP flash operation. If the flash is removed with the FP setting, icon-FP.gif blinks as a warning.

Repeating Flash icon-repeat.gif Mode - For cameras in all groups In the icon-repeat.gif mode, the SB-28 fires repeatedly during a single exposure, creating stroboscopic multiple-exposure effects. This mode is useful when shooting fast-moving subjects.

Flash settings 1 Select the flash mode. Press the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until icon-M.gif icon-repeat.gif appear on the LCD panel. 2 Set the flash output level, the frequency (Hz), and the number of repeating flashes per frame. Set the flash output level, the frequency, and the number of repeating flashes per frame separately. Press the icon-select.gif button until the flash output level starts blinking, then press the icon-minus.gif or icon-minus.gif button to set the desired flash output level.

RepeatA.gif Repeatb.gif
Finally, press the icon-select.gif button to stop the flash output level from blinking. Repeat the procedures above to set the frequency and the number of repeating flashes per frame. The numbers blink during adjustment and stop after 8 seconds unless the icon-select.gif button is pressed. The non-blinking number is the one automatically set.
RepeatD.gif

NOTE: In the example, at 1/8 flash output level, the flash will fire three times per frame at a frequency of 4 flashes per second.

RepeatC.gif

Camera settings 3 Set the exposure mode to Manual (M). 4 Set the aperture. For cameras in Groups I and II with Nikkor lenses with a built-in CPU: Change the aperture on the camera as you watch the indicator bar icon-barA.gif on the LCD panel change to match the shooting distance. For other camera/lens combinations: Press the icon-minus.gif or icon-minus.gif button to change the aperture on the LCD panel. Then set the same aperture on the lens aperture ring. The indicator bar icon-barA.gif shows a flash shooting distance in which the correct exposure can be obtained with a single flash firing.

5 Set the shutter speed. Use the equation to determine the shutter speed.

repeatE.gif

For example, if the number of flashes per frame is 10 and frequency is 5 Hz, divide 10 by 5 to get a shutter speed of 2 sec. or slower. Or you can set the shutter speed to B (bulb) to accommodate any number of repeating flashes. 6 Wait for the ready-light to come on and make sure the subject is in focus before taking the picture. Press the icon-flash.gif button to make sure the flash fires correctly as set. note: In the Repeating Flash Mode, use a tripod to prevent camera/flash shake. Allow the SB-28 to cool off for at least 10 minutes after 10 sequences of repeating flash.

Exposure compensation in Repeating Flash Mode The flash shooting distance calculated in step number 4 is the correct exposure for the first flash in the sequence. Therefore, repeating flash at this flash output level will result in overexposure of the overlapped images. To prevent this, use a smaller aperture. NOTE Use fresh or fully charged batteries when performing repeating flash. Allow enough time for the flash to recycle between each repeating flash.

Guide Numbers for determining correct aperture Guide numbers help you determine a correct exposure or proper aperture (f/stop) when using the SB-28 in the Manual ƒor Repeating Flash "mode. The guide number represents the amount of light (ISO 100: for m/ft) generated by the flash. With the SB-28, you can calculate a correct aperture by using the following equation and the guide number table.

RepeatF.gif
Guide number varies with film speed. For example, when shooting a subject located 9m (approx. 30 ft) away at 1/1 (full) flash output, with the zoom-head position at 35mm and a film speed of ISO 100, first read the guide number from the table above. In this case, it is 36 (or 118). Then divide the guide number by the shooting distance:
f/stop = 36/9 (in meters) = 4
f/stop = 118/30 (in feet) = 3.93 = approx. 4
Therefore f/4 is the correct aperture.

RepeatG.gif


For film speeds other than ISO 100, multiply the guide numbers by the factors shown in the above table. For example, if the film speed in the previous example was ISO 400 rather than ISO 100, the guide number is 72 (36 x 2).


| previous | NEXT | 4/6 Bounced flash + Multiple Flash photography Setup

Part One | Part Two | Part Three | Part Four | Part Five | Part Six

| Back | Index Page The Nikon F5 SB-28 Instruction manual
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Relative:
Nikon AF-TTL Speedlight Models:
Nikon SB-800 | Nikon SB-600 | Nikon SB-30 | Nikon SB-29(s) (2000) | Nikon SB-28 (1997) | Nikon SB-27 (1997) | Nikon SB-26 (1994) | Nikon SB-25 (1992) | Nikon SB-24 (1988) | SB-23 | SB-22 (1987) | SB-20 (1986)
Nikon AF-TTL Speedlight DX-Series:
Nikon SB-28DX (1999)| SB-50DX (2001) | SB-80DX (2002)
Additional information on various
Nikon MF Bulb Flash - Nikon MF-Speedlights SB-1 ~ SB-21A/B

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Index Page
  Special Application lenses:
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Dedicated Lenses for Nikon F3AF: AF 80mm f/2.8 | AF 200mm f/3.5 EDIF
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Nikon Series E Lenses: 28mm35mm50mm100mm135mm | E-Series Zoom lenses: 36~72mm75~150mm70~210mm


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Recommended links to understand more technical details related to the Nikkor F-mount and production Serial Number:
http://rick_oleson.tripod.com/index-153.html by: my friend, Rick Oleson
http://www.zi.ku.dk/personal/lhhansen/photo/fmount.htm by: Hansen, Lars Holst
http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/hardwares/nikonfmount/lens2.htm
http://www.photosynthesis.co.nz/nikon/serialno.html

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