Modern Classic SLRs Series :
Nikon SB-28 AF-TTL Speedlight
Instruction Manual - Part V

 
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Bounce flash operation - Applicable to all camera groups

When taking pictures indoors, direct flash often causes harsh, unattractive shadows on the subject or background. By bouncing the light off the ceiling or walls, you can soften the shadows and produce more natural-looking portraits. With the SB-28's built-in bounce card, you can create a highlight in the subject's eyes. (See section on on using the built-in bounce card.)

bounceA.jpg
Camera settings: 1 Select the exposure mode. Set camera’s exposure mode to Aperture-priority auto (A) or Manual (M). 2 Set the aperture. With bounce flash, there is a 2 to 3 stop light loss or more, depending on the height of the ceiling, when compared with normal flash operation. Therefore, you should use the largest aperture (smaller f-number) possible and bracket your exposures.


Flash settings: 3 Select a flash mode. Press the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until icon-TTL.gif or SB28iconA.gif appears on the LCD panel. 4 Tilt and/or rotate the flash head. Depress the flash head tilting/rotating lock release button and tilt the flash head up at least 60° to bounce light off the ceiling.

bounceA.gif BounceB.gif
If the angle of the flash head is not far enough off axis from the subject, uneven illumination will result from a combination of direct and bounced flash. In color photography, select white or highly reflective surfaces to bounce light off of. Otherwise, your pictures will come out with an unnatural color cast similar to that of the reflecting surface.


Flash head tilting and rotating angle For bouncing light off the walls or when the camera is held vertically, the SB-28’s flash head tilts up to 90° and rotates horizontally 180° (to the left) and 90° (to the right). Always set the flash head at a click stop. When the flash head is tilted up or rotated from the horizontal/front position, the shooting range indicator bars icon-barA.gif on the LCD panel disappear and the SB-28’s Monitor Preflash does not operate. The shooting range indicator bars icon-barA.gif blink when the flash head is tilted down to the -7° position. This position is used when shooting subjects 1.5m (approx. 5 ft) or closer.

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5 Wait for the ready-light to come on and make sure the subject is in focus before taking the picture. If the ready-light blinks for approx. 3 seconds after shooting, the flash fired at its maximum output, indicating the light may have been insufficient for correct exposure. In that case, use a wider aperture or move closer to the subject. • In bounce flash operation, no shooting range indicator bars icon-barA.gif appear. Therefore, you should check the distance between the flash head and the bounce surface, between the bounce surface and the subject, and the angle of tilt or rotation of flash head, then bracket your exposures by ±1 or 2 stops.


Using the built-in bounce card In bounce flash photography, you can create a highlight in the subject's eyes by using the SB-28's built-in bounce card. This white card reflects a small amount of light directly back to the subject, opening up the shadows and making the eyes look more vibrant. 1 Pull out the wide flash adapter. 2 While holding the bounce card, slide the wide flash adapter back into place inside the flash head. After sliding the wide flash adapter back into place, pull out the bounce card gently as far as it goes. Be careful not to force the bounce card. 3 Set the flash head as shown and take pictures. After use, don't forget to slide the bounce card back into its original position inside the flash head.

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Close-up flash operation in TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif Mode When shooting subjects closer than 0.6m (2 ft), use your SB-28 off camera and utilize its built-in wide flash adapter. 1 Connect the SB-28 to your camera using the optional TTL Remote Cord SC-17.

Note: For Nikon F5 cameras with a High-Magnification Finder DW-30 or DW-31, use the optional TTL Remote Cord SC-24. For Nikon F4 cameras with a High-Magnification Finder DW-20 or DW-21, use the optional TTL Remote Cord SC-24.


Camera settings
2 Set the exposure mode to Aperture-priority auto (A) or Manual (M). For cameras with VARI-PROGRAM or SIMPLE mode, close-up flash photography is easy by setting the camera to the close-ups mode. 3 Set the aperture. Calculate the aperture (f/stop) by using this equation and table.

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*Numbers in parentheses ( ) represent coefficients in feet. For example, with a subject 0.5m (1.6ft) away using ISO 100 film and the wide flash adapter in place, the suggested aperture is:
macro3.gif
Therefore, you should use f/8 or a smaller aperture, such as f/11.

Flash settings 4 Set the flash mode. Press the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until icon-TTL.gif appears on the LCD panel. 5 Position the built-in wide flash adapter over the flash head. 6 Adjust the zoom-head position to 18mm or 20mm regardless of the lens focal length in use.

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7 Move the SB-28 off axis, making sure the subject will receive sufficient illumination. In 3D Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-Flash mode with cameras in Group I, you may not be able to obtain correct exposure because distance information from the lens (D-type Nikkor) is used. In this case, position the camera and SB-28 at equal distances from the subject. 8 Wait for the ready-light to come on and make sure the subject is in focus before taking the picture. If the ready-light blinks for approx. 3 seconds after shooting, this indicates the light may have been insufficient for correct exposure. In this case, use a wider aperture or move closer to the subject. Correct exposure cannot be obtained if the subject is predominantly black or white or contains a highly reflective surface. In that case, make exposure compensation according to the shooting conditions. (See sections on, Exposure compensation in flash photography,to ensure correct exposure.)


Multiple flash operation To eliminate harsh, directional shadows produced by a single flash unit or to add additional illumination to the background, you can attach additional Nikon Speedlights in series. For multiple flash operation with the SB-28, both TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif and Manual Flash icon-M.gif modes are possible.

Multiple flash operation in TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif mode is possible with cameras in Groups I through VI and F3-Series cameras. Multiple flash operation in Manual Flash icon-M.gif mode is possible with cameras in all groups. For applicable flash units and accessories, see pages 68-69, System chart for TTL multiple flash. In multiple flash operation, first decide which will be the main unit and which the secondary unit(s). To eliminate shadows, adjust the lighting ratio so that illumination from the main unit is greater than that from the secondary unit(s).

Notes on multiple flash operation In multiple flash operation, if the electric current in the synchro circuit exceeds a certain level, you may not be able to take a second shot after the first. In this case, turn each of the flash units off once or disconnect the SB-28 unit from the camera. This resets the circuits so you can resume shooting.is) In multiple flash operation, take care that the combined total of the coefficients (numbers shown in parentheses below) for all flash units used at the same time does not exceed 20 at 20°C (68°F), or 13 at 40°C (104°F).

Speedlight coefficients SB-50DX (1) SB-29 (1) SB-28/28DX (1) SB-27 (1) SB-26 (1) SB-25 (1) SB-24 (1) SB-23 (4) SB-22s (1) SB-22 (6) SB-21 (4) SB-20 (9) SB-17 (4) SB-16 (4) SB-15 (4) SB-14 (1) SB-11 (1) SB-140 (1) Coefficient numbers in parentheses are in units of flashsymbolA.gif.

TTL multiple flash operation Cameras in Groups I through VI and Nikon F3-Series 1 Attach the main flash unit to the camera’s accessory shoe. To use the SB-28 off-camera, refer to section on, System chart for TTL multiple flash, for the correct type of optional TTL Remote Cord to use. 2 Set the flash mode of the master flash unit to icon-TTL.gif mode.

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To obtain the correct exposure with the SB-28 when used as the main flash and set to 3D Multi-Sensor Balanced Fill-Flash, cancel Monitor Preflash on the main flash unit by pressing the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until icon-TTL.gif appears on the LCD panel. 3 Connect the main flash unit to the secondary flash unit(s). 4 Set the flash mode on all the flash units to icon-TTL.gif . Turn on all flash units and make sure their Standby functions are canceled.
Use one or more TTL Remote Cords SC-18 or SC-19 to connect the SB-28 to the secondary flash unit(s) in series. 5 Follow the same procedures as in normal TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif mode. When all flash units are set to Manual flash icon-M.gif mode, Manual multiple flash operation is performed.

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Credit: Image of SU-4 courtesy of Mr. Mike from Midwest Photo Exchange ® <mpx@mpex.com>. Websiet URL: http://www.mpex.com. Image copyright © 2003. All rights reserved. Please respect the visual property of the contributing photographer.
TTL multiple flash operation using the Wireless Slave Flash Controller SU-4 (optional) TTL multiple flash operation is possible by using the camera’s built-in Speedlight or a Speedlight mounted on the camera’s hot shoe as the master flash unit, and one or more Speedlights mounted on the Wireless Slave Flash Controller SU-4s as slave flash units. The SU-4’s built-in light sensor not only detects when the master flash unit fires to trigger the slave flash unit, but also controls the flash duration of the slave flash unit in sync with the master flash unit. Manual multiple flash operation is also possible by setting the flash mode selector to manual (M). These Nikon Speedlights are usable: SB-29, SB-28/28DX, SB-27, SB-26, SB-25, SB-24, SB-23, SB-22s, SB-22, SB-20, SB-18, SB-16B, SB-15 For more information, refer to the instruction manual provided with the SU-4.

System chart for TTL multiple flash (For cameras in Groups I through VI, plus F3-Series cameras) • SB-11, SB-14, SB-140, and SB-21B Speedlights cannot be used with the F-401/N4004 or F-401s/N4004s as either main or secondary units.

System Chart for Flash (38k Gif)
Secondary Flash Units (28k Gif)

Manual multiple flash operation (For cameras in all groups) 1 Connect the SB-28 to the sync terminal of the secondary flash unit(s) using a cord. Usable optional remote cords: Use the sync terminals for connecting the SB-28 with other flash units via the Sync Cord SC-11/SC-15, or TTL Multi-Flash Sync Cord SC-18/SC-19.

2 Set the flash mode of all the flash units to Manual icon-M.gif 3 Set the zoom-head position and the flash-to-subject distance of the main flash unit and secondary unit(s). First set the zoom-head position and the flash-to-subject shooting distance of the main flash unit, then on the secondary unit(s).To calculate the maximum number of flash units that can be connected, see earlier section. 4 Follow the same procedure as in normal Manual flash icon-M.gif mode. For applicable guide numbers in Manual icon-M.gif mode for each flash output level at each zoom-head position, related section on zoom heads, Guide Numbers for determining correct aperture in icon-M.gif and icon-repeat.gif modes.

Exposure compensation in flash photography - For cameras in all groups

In the TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif or non-TTL Auto Flash SB28iconA.gif mode, some plus compensation may be necessary when the background includes a mirror, white wall or other highly reflective surface. Likewise, some minus compensation may be required when the background is dark or includes subjects of low reflectivity. You can also make exposure compensation to create flash photographs which are somewhat brighter or darker to match the subject or your creative preferences. Exposure compensation methods can be divided into five categories. The flash output level is automatically compensated in category 1, and manually compensated by the user in the categories 2 to 5. But this may vary depending on which camera you are using.

1 Automatic exposure compensation in TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif mode In 3D Multi-Sensor balanced Fill-Flash, Multi-Sensor balanced Fill-Flash, and Centre-Weighted/ Spot Fill-Flash operations, the flash output is automatically balanced to keep both subject and background correctly exposed. To cancel automatic exposure compensation, change the flash mode to Standard TTL Flash.2 Intentional exposure compensation of the SB-28’s flash output in TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif mode The SB-28’s flash output level can be compensated without affecting the background exposure.3 Intentional exposure compensation of the SB-28’s flash output and the background in TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif mode Use your camera’s exposure compensation control button or dial to make exposure compensation to both foreground and background.4 Intentional exposure compensation of the main subject in Non-TTL Auto Flash SB28iconA.gif·mode Set a different aperture on the camera than that set on the SB-28 to make the foreground subject lighter or darker.5 Intentional exposure compensation of the main subject in Manual icon-M.gif mode Intentionally set a different aperture on the camera than that set on the SB-28 or change the flash output level. Intentional exposure compensation described in categories 2 to 5 in TTL Auto Flashicon-TTL.gif, Non-TTL Auto SB28iconA.gif·and Manual icon-M.gif modes is explained on the following pages.

Flash exposure compensation in TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif mode For cameras in Groups I through III when making exposure compensation to the SB-28’s flash output

In the icon-TTL.gif mode, only the SB-28’s flash output can be compensated without affecting the background exposure. Cameras with EV compensation capability allow you to make exposure compensation on either the SB-28 or the camera (or both). If you use both controls, exposure is modified by the sum total of both exposure compensation values and will affect the background exposure. Although the SB-28's LCD panel does not display the amount of compensation set on the camera, the shooting range indicator bars_ still automatically change to match the exposure compensation. NOTE With cameras in Group III, make exposure compensation on the camera. The amount of compensation set on the camera does not appear on the SB-28’s LCD panel.

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Flash settings 1 Press the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until icon-TTL.gif appears on the LCD panel. 2 Press the icon-select.gif button until icon-compen.gif appears on the LCD panel and the exposure compensation value starts blinking.

compen3.gif compen4.gif
3 Set the desired exposure compensation. Press the icon-plus.gif or icon-minus.gif button to increase or decrease the compensation. 4 Press the icon-select.gif button to make the exposure compensation value stop blinking. Note: Exposure compensation is possible in 1/3 steps from –3.0 to +1.0 EV. The shooting range indicator bars icon-barA.gif automatically change according to the amount of exposure compensation.

Canceling exposure compensation Flash exposure compensation cannot be canceled by turning the SB-28 off. To cancel, reset the exposure compensation to 0.0 following the steps outlined above.

Flash exposure compensation in TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif mode For cameras in Groups I through VI (when making exposure compensation to the SB-28’s flash output and the background)

Use your camera's EV compensation control to make exposure compensation. In this mode, flash output is automatically controlled to keep both subject and background correctly exposed. • For more details, refer to your camera's instruction manual. The SB-28's LCD panel does not display the amount of compensation set on the camera. With cameras in Groups I and II, the shooting range indicator bars icon-barA.gif automatically change according to the amount of exposure compensation. For cameras other than those in Groups I and II, use this chart as a guide in obtaining the correct flash shooting distance range.

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For example, with ISO 100 film, if you want to make an exposure compensation of +2 steps on the camera, set the film speed on the SB-28’s LCD panel to ISO 25, then check the flash shooting distance range. For cameras in Groups I through VI, exposure compensation in the TTL Auto Flash icon-TTL.gif mode is not possible when the film speed exceeds those listed above. In this case, set the flash mode to Non-TTL Auto Flash SB28iconA.gif or Manual Flash icon-M.gif mode.

Flash exposure compensation in Non-TTL Auto Flash SB28iconA.gif mode In this mode, if you don't set the same aperture on the lens as that set on the SB-28, you cannot obtain the correct exposure. Therefore, to make exposure compensation, vary the aperture set on the camera while retaining the aperture set on the SB-28.Read the flash shooting distance range as shown on the SB-28 without changing the aperture set on the SB-28.

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For example, the subject will be overexposed if you use a larger (smaller f-number) aperture on the camera than that set on the SB-28 or choose a higher flash output level setting, and underexposed if you do the opposite

Flash exposure compensation in Manual Flash icon-M.gif mode In this mode, you can obtain the correct exposure by balancing three factors: flash output level, flash-to-subject distance, and aperture. You can calculate a correct aperture and flash shooting distance range by using the guide number equations on section that relates. First set the exposure indicated by the camera, then (1) use a different aperture on the camera than that on the SB-28, or (2) select an output setting ranging from full output (1/1) to one sixty-fourth (1/64).Note: Although the indicator bar icon-barA.gif on the SB-28’s LCD panel changes as you change the flash output level, go ahead and shoot anyway.

Red-Eye reduction control - For cameras in Group I (except F5), F65-Series/N65-Series and Pronea 600i/6i When photographing people or animals in dim light using flash, the subject's eyes may come out bright red in color pictures or white in black and white pictures. This phenomenon is known as Red-Eye To prevent this, cameras in Group I (except the F5) as well as the Pronea 600i/6i feature Red-Eye reduction control. You cannot set Red-Eye reduction on the SB-28 directly. For more information, refer to your camera’s instruction manual. When Red-Eye reduction is set on your camera, the SB-28’s Red-Eye reduction LED lights up for approx. 1 sec. before the flash fires to close down the iris of the subject's eyes.

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Setting your camera to Red-Eye reduction After setting your camera to Red-Eye reduction, check the SB-28's LCD panel to make sure appears.

Rear-curtain flash sync - Cameras in Groups I through III featuring a rear-curtain flash sync mode (F5, F100, F90X/N90s, F90-Series/N90, F80-Series/N80-Series, F70-Series/N70, F65-Series/N65-Series, F-601/N6006 and Pronea 600i/6i cameras only) In normal flash synchronization, the SB-28 fires at the beginning of the exposure just after the front shutter curtain opens. When shooting fast moving subjects at slower shutter speeds, this usually results in unnatural-looking pictures where the subject frozen by the appears behind or within the blurred movement. In rear-curtain flash sync, the flash fires at the end of the exposure, just before the rear curtain closes, creating a picture in which the frozen subject is in front of the blurred action. Because the SB-28 does not have its own rear-curtain control, only those cameras with a rear-curtain flash sync mode can perform this function by setting it on the camera. No rear-curtain flash sync indicator appears on the SB-28’s LCD panel even when this mode is set on the camera. In multiple flash setups, the main flash unit can be set to either front-curtain or rear curtain flash sync The secondary units, however, cannot be set to rear-curtain flash sync.

Rear-curtain flash sync - Cameras in Groups I through III featuring a rear-curtain flash sync mode

Flash settings 1. Select the flash mode. Press the SB28LCDrearB.gif button until the desired mode icon-TTL.gif SB28iconA.gif or icon-M.gif appears on the LCD panel. In Manual ƒmode when either FP High-Speed Flash sync icon-FP.gif or Repeating Flash icon-repeat.gif is selected, rear-curtain flash sync cannot be performed.

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Camera settings 2 Set the flash sync mode to rear-curtain sync. 3 Set the exposure mode. Set the camera’s exposure mode to Shutter-priority auto (S) or Manual (M). Although rear-curtain flash sync is possible in Programmed auto (P) or Aperture-priority auto (A) mode, it is not recommended because you cannot intentionally adjust the shutter speed. 4 Set the shutter speed. The slower the shutter speed you select, the more effective the results will be. Use of a tripod is recommended
rearcurtainA.gif
5 Check the shooting distance. Wait for the ready-light to come on and make sure the subject is in focus before taking the picture. In icon-TTL.gif, or SB28iconA.gif mode, if the ready-light blinks for approx. 3 seconds after shooting, this indicates the light may have been insufficient for correct exposure. In this case, use a wider aperture or move closer to the subject.

NEXT Section - Additional information Reference In this section, information on troubleshooting and optional accessories is presented. Following that are tips on Speedlight care, notes on batteries, with the SB-28’s specifications coming at the end of the manual.

| previous | NEXT | 5/6 Checking correct exposure / System Accessories / Care / Batteries Issues /Trouble shooting / Specifications

Part One | Part Two | Part Three | Part Four | Part Five | Part Six

| Back | Index Page The Nikon F5 SB-28 Instruction manual
| Back | Index Page The Nikon F5 SB-28DX Instruction manual

Relative:
Nikon AF-TTL Speedlight Models:
Nikon SB-800 | Nikon SB-600 | Nikon SB-30 | Nikon SB-29(s) (2000) | Nikon SB-28 (1997) | Nikon SB-27 (1997) | Nikon SB-26 (1994) | Nikon SB-25 (1992) | Nikon SB-24 (1988) | SB-23 | SB-22 (1987) | SB-20 (1986)
Nikon AF-TTL Speedlight DX-Series:
Nikon SB-28DX (1999)| SB-50DX (2001) | SB-80DX (2002)
Additional information on various
Nikon MF Bulb Flash - Nikon MF-Speedlights SB-1 ~ SB-21A/B

| Back | Main Index Page - Nikon F5 Professional SLR camera

The Camera - Background, Issues & Summary

Basic Features | Focusing | Metering Systems | Exposure Control | Reliability Issues | Nikkor lens Compatibility

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/Finders -
Index page - 2 parts
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Index Page - 3 parts
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Macro Photography - Related info on Micro-Nikkor lenses

Technical
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Index Page
  Special Application lenses:
Micro-Nikkor Lenses - 50mm~55mm -60mm 85mm -105mm 200mm Micro-Zoom 70-180mm
Perspective Control (PC) - 28mm 35mm PC-Micro 85mm
Dedicated Lenses for Nikon F3AF: AF 80mm f/2.8 | AF 200mm f/3.5 EDIF
Depth of Field Control (DC): 105mm 135mm
Medical Nikkor: 120mm 200mm
Reflex-Nikkor Lenses - 500mm 1000mm 2000mm
Others: Noct Nikkor | OP-Nikkor | UV Nikkor 55mm 105mm | Focusing Units | Bellows-Nikkor 105mm 135mm
Nikon Series E Lenses: 28mm35mm50mm100mm135mm | E-Series Zoom lenses: 36~72mm75~150mm70~210mm


MF Zoom-Nikkor Lenses: 25~50mm | 28~45mm | 28~50mm | 28~85mm | 35~70mm | 36~72mm E | 35~85mm | 35~105mm | 35~135mm | 35~200mm | 43~86mm | 50~135mm | 50~300mm | 70~210mm E | 75~150mm E | 80~200mm | 85~250mm | 100~300mm | 180~600mm | 200~400mm | 200~600mm | 360~1200mm | 1200~1700mm

Tele-Converters: TC-1 | TC-2 | TC-200 | TC-201 | TC-300 | TC-301 | TC-14 | TC-14A | TC-14B | TC-14C | TC-14E | TC-16 | TC-16A | TC-20E

Recommended links to understand more technical details related to the Nikkor F-mount and production Serial Number:
http://rick_oleson.tripod.com/index-153.html by: my friend, Rick Oleson
http://www.zi.ku.dk/personal/lhhansen/photo/fmount.htm by: Hansen, Lars Holst
http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/hardwares/nikonfmount/lens2.htm
http://www.photosynthesis.co.nz/nikon/serialno.html

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W A R N I N G: The new G-SERIES Nikkor lenses have removed the conventional aperture ring on the lense barrel, they CANNOT adjust aperture(s) when operating in manual exposure control even with certain earlier MF/AF Nikon SLR camera models. But they are FULLY COMPATIBLE with the Nikon F5 featured here in all usable metering systems and/or exposure modes. Please refer to your local distributor for compatibility issue(s).

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Credit: Mr. Chuck Hester, US for his text re-editing skill for this site; Our staff, HowKiat® who created the 3D-Nikon F5 logo. Mr. Lew Chee Wai of YL camera for lending his F5 for me to take some shots appeared in this site. All those nice folks who have contributed their images, in particular Mr. Mike Long, Edwin leong, Palmi Einarsson, Sergio Pessolano, Fred Kamphues, Harry Eggens, Curtis Forrester, Nick (Natures Moments), Sandra Bartocha; fellow countrymen, Vincent Thian, Koh Kho King, Philip Chong, CY Leow etc. and contributions from a few nice folks from Photo Malaysia Forum. Disclaimers & acknowledgments: Certain content and images appeared in this site were either scanned from official marketing leaflets, brochures published by Nikon and/or contribution from surfers who claimed originality of their own work for public publishing in this website, where majority of the extracted information are used basing on educational merits. The creator of this site will not be responsible for any discrepancies that may arise from any possible dispute except rectifying them after verification from respective source. Neither Nikon or its associates has granted any permission(s) in using their public information nor has any interest in the creation of this site. "Nikon", "Nikkormat", "Nippon Kokagu KK" "Silent Wave", "Focus Tracking Lock-on", "Nikkor" & other applicable technical/business terms are registered trade name(s) of Nikon Corporation Inc., Japan. Site made with an Apple G5 IMac.

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